Departmental Bulletin Paper Historical Interaction with Neighbors from the View of Livelihood Change: A Study of the Sandawe of Tanzania

八塚, 春名  ,  ヤツカ, ハルナ  ,  Haruna, Yatsuka

94pp.81 - 105 , 2016-12-08 , 国立民族学博物館 , National Museum of Ethnology
Historically, many hunter-gatherer societies were assimilated into the societyof the majority, or themselves accepted agriculture or livestock-keeping. However,many researchers lost interest when they decreased to depend on hunting andgathering; consequently few studies have been conducted on a society’srelationships with its neighbors after its livelihood changed. Based on an analysisof historical livelihood change among the Sandawe of Tanzania, this articleexamines how the relationships between hunter-gatherers and their neighborschange when a hunting-gathering society takes up another livelihood. MostSandawe appear to have adopted agriculture and livestock keeping toward the endof the 19th century. Nowadays, most of them have crop fields and depend on theircultivated crops for the bulk of their diet. As a consequence, Sandawe economicrelationships with neighbours have declined whereas intra-group relationships havebeen reinforced. Although engaging in various livelihoods based on agricultureand being economically independent of others, this does not mean that Sandaweidentity also became similar to others. It is concluded that the primary methods ofSandawe livelihood have transitioned slowly rather than forcibly. As a result, theSandawe have not abandoned hunting-gathering completely and have maintainedtheir ethnic identity without being unilaterally dependent on their neighbors.

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