||The Impact of Hunter-Food Producing Society Relations on the Ainu's Subsistence
手塚, 薫 ,
テヅカ, カオルKaoru, Tezuka
Senri Ethnological Studies
57 , 2016-12-08 , 国立民族学博物館 , National Museum of Ethnology
The Ainu have been widely accepted by scholars as a representative exampleof complex hunter-gatherers with a delayed return economic system. Recently,doubts have arisen regarding the role of small-scale food production in Ainusociety, especially in the Early Contact Period. The Colonial Department of Japanbanned fishing for salmon and deer hunting in the 1870s, which brought aboutchanges in the ways that Ainu obtained the resources necessary for theirlivelihoods. Assessment of archaeological and ethnohistoric evidence suggests thatthe Ainu were incipient cultivators and that they developed an individual style offarming. Rice and other goods were also obtained through trade with foodproducingsocieties. After an uprising known as the War of Shakushine in 1699,Ainu fishing labor was incorporated into the larger Japanese system. Agriculturalactivities expanded steadily, with traditional techniques such as broadcasting ofseeds in unridged fields, rather than hiding some of them in remote places becauseof the prohibition of farming by the Matsumae Domain. Diverse methods wereemployed in agricultural production, and a sizable number of different crops weregrown. The article concludes with a new interpretation of archaeological,historical, and ethnographic evidence regarding the complexity of Ainu subsistenceand settlement systems.