学術雑誌論文 5歳児のわらべうたの短期記憶再生音声の研究Ⅱ : 音程と基本周波数の関係から見る特徴
An Analysis of Five-Year-Old Children’s Ability to Sing Japanese Children’s Songs from Short-Term Memory Ⅱ : Notes and tone intervals sung by the children vs. correct fundamental frequencies

渡辺, 優子  ,  Watanabe, Yuko

10 ( 1 )  , pp.1 - 8 , 2017-09 , 新潟青陵学会
ISSN:1883-759X
NII書誌ID(NCID):AA12412634
内容記述
The purpose of this study was to elucidate some characteristics of 5-year-old children’s ability to reproduce Japanese children’s songs (Warabe-uta) from short-term memory, especially with respect to the accuracy of the notes and tone intervals they sang, as compared to the correct fundamental frequencies. As a result of these comparisons, the following was discovered:1.Where the melody contained intervals of a whole tone or more, the children sometimes mistakenly sang these intervals as two notes of the same pitch instead.2.After finishing one word cluster and beginning a second word cluster, they often started singing the first note of this second cluster either at the same pitch as the last note of the previous cluster, or a whole tone above this last note of the previous cluster.3.One characteristic of warabe-uta songs is that they often end with a falling whole tone followed by a rising whole tone ( D― C―D, for example), and previous studies had suggested that this characteristic ending may help children sing the final note of the song accurately. However, in the present study, even though almost all the children first sang the falling whole tone accurately, only around 60% of them correctly reproduced the subsequent whole-tone rise to the final note, which may have been due to interference from the natural accent of the words as they would have been spoken.4.The children adapted their singing to the words and actions of song, sometimes modifying the notes and singing style to suit these non-melodic elements. It therefore again seemed that their singing was generally influenced by the phonology of the spoken Japanese Lanuage.
5歳児のわらべうたの短期記憶再生音声について、基本周波数と音程を結び付けて考察した。その結果、次のような特徴が見出された。①子どもたちの歌う音程は原曲に比べ同音が多い。②言葉のまとまりごとに、前の音と同音もしくは、長2度上昇する場合が多い。③わらべうたにおける2度音程の終止の場合、長2度下降した後、長2度上行して終止へ至る場合が多く見られ、終止音の安定性が指摘されている。本研究では、長2度下降した後、約6割は長2度上行して終止音に至っているが、下降音程の方が上昇音程よりはっきりしている。終止音への移行音程には言葉の抑揚などが影響していると考えられる。④子ども達は歌や遊びの進行に合わせて適宜音程や歌い方を変化させている。これには子ども達が感じている、日本語の語感が影響していると考えられる。
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http://nirr.lib.niigata-u.ac.jp/bitstream/10623/71724/1/sg_1001_1.pdf

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