稲作農業の機械化と女性農業労働の変化 : 滋賀県の湖岸部集落における調査から【特集論文 : 地域資源・自然資源と人との関わり】稲作農業の機械化と女性農業労働の変化 : 滋賀県の湖岸部集落における調査から【特集論文 : 地域資源・自然資源と人との関わり】AA12006393 Farm mechanization and its impact on women's work in farming households
There were a number of skilled tasks carried out by women in paddy cultivation before the mechanization of most operations related to rice cultivation in the 1970s. It was only women who transplanted paddy seedlings before the transplanter was developed, but after farm mechanization was completed, the tasks left to women were peripheral tasks that did not require any skill. The women in farming households started having little to do with their family?s farming business. This study investigates the changes in the various tasks carried out by women after the introduction of agricultural machinery and the relationship of women with family farms run by their husbands. The mechanization of cultivation, i.e. the introduction of tractors, had little impact on the women?s tasks. However, the introduction of the walking-type transplanter in the 1970s had significant effects on women. They were pleased with the new machinery because they did not have to crouch for a long time to transplant the seedlings in the cold water during the transplantation season. However, when the riding-type transplanter was introduced, women were asked by their husbands to be engaged in a large amount of unexpectedly arduous work. Furthermore, they became less interested in rice cultivation because they did not have the opportunities to learn how to operate the machinery, and their husbands monopolized all the skills that were required not only to operate the machinery but also to run their farm as a whole. Agricultural mechanization ironically alienated women from various farm-related tasks and farm management.