“Specific meanings” in Russian verbal aspect and polysemy networks
堤, 正典Tsutsumi, Masanori
40 , 2017-03-10 , 神奈川大学言語研究センター
In this paper I represent perfective and imperfective aspects of Russian verbs ascategories which consist of polysemy networks respectively. Some research into Russian verbal aspect has explained the perfective as a marked element that generally carries the meaning of “totality,” whereas the imperfective is an unmarked element that generally expresses neither “totality” nor “non-totality” actively. The specific meaning of both the perfective and imperfective are derived when the general meaning is rendered specific through context. The general meaning and the specific meaning are, respectively, “invariant” and “variant,” and are equivalent to the phonemes and allophonesof structural phonemics. Thus, this can be referred to as the “invariant-variantmodel.” Another model can, however, be proposed: the polysemy network model. Evaluating the specific meanings of perfective and imperfective expressions shows that they consist of polysemy networks (or radial categories) which typically consist of a central (prototype) member and some peripheral members connected with each other. The perfective Russian aspect is composed of a network which has a concrete-factual meaning as the central member, while in the case of an imperfective network it is difficult to identify such a member.