Departmental Bulletin Paper 学びに向かう力の概念的検討 : ガイ・クラックストンの4Rs理論を手がかりに

新井, 浅浩

2pp.3 - 14 , 2018-03 , 城西大学教職課程センター
本稿では,平成29年に改訂された学習指導要領において育成を目指す資質・能力の一つである「学びに向かう力」の概念がいかなる特性を持ちうるかを検討した。その際,イギリス等で展開されている「学び方の学習」の取り組みと,その代表的な理論であるガイ・クラックストンのラ ーニングパワー理論(4Rs理論)を手がかりとした。その結果,ラーニングパワー理論で提唱されている諸要素はいずれも「学びに向かう力」の構成要素になりうること,その育成には学習指導要領に提示されている「態度」の育成とともに,「習慣」の獲得が重要であること,その際,授業方法やカリキュラム原理以上に,教師の持つ能力観が重要であること,を主張した。Japan’s national curriculum guidelines for elementary and junior high schools, revised in 2017, promote three competency strands for schools to foster in students, one of which is rendered in English as power directed toward learning.However, when examining the government’s curricula recommendations, power directed toward learning was apparently not deemed important enough to explicate, making implementing school level curriculum policy difficult.This paper explores what sorts of competencies might be taught in order to develop such learning power in students.Principles that require consideration in order to foster competencies associated with learning power will also be discussed. To do this, we examine educational initiatives developed in the UK out of the concept of learning to learn and G. Claxton’s “Four Rs” theory. We draw on the following hypotheses.First, all four Rs in Claxton’s building learning power theory (Resilience, Resourcefulness, Reflection, Reciprocity) can be crucial elements in cultivating the power directed toward learning the ministry of education mentions. Second, the cultivation of “habit” (which Claxton places under the rubric of “Resilience”) is no more important than fostering “attitude” – mentioned in the government’s guidelines – when the power directed toward learning is promoted in each subject. Third, principles of both curriculum design and teaching methodology, as well as teacher beliefs toward learning are vitally important when teachers teach children to develop the power directed toward learning.

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