Departmental Bulletin Paper 小学校水泳授業の現状と児童および教員の意識に関する検討
Study of the current state of elementary school swimming lessons in Japan with reference to the motivation of students and teachers

寺本, 圭輔  ,  家崎, 仁成  ,  古田, 理郁  ,  平野, 雅巳  ,  村松, 愛梨奈  ,  三浦, 唯  ,  瀧本, 歩

5pp.83 - 90 , 2017-03-31 , 愛知教育大学大学院・静岡大学大学院教育学研究科共同教科開発学専攻(後期3年博士課程)
本研究では, 児童および小学校教員を対象に水泳および水泳授業に関するアンケート調査を行い, 学校水泳の望ましい在り方をさぐることを目的とした。対象者は小学校3~6年の児童1055名および教員61名であった。アンケート調査の内容は, 児童へは「泳力に関する調査」, 「水泳への意欲や関心」, 「学校水泳に対する意欲や関心」, 「スイミングスクールの活動経験」の4分野で全20項目, 教員へは「水泳指導について」, 「水泳指導の方法」の2分野で全26項目であった。児童について, 水泳を楽しいと感じている回答が多かったが, 3年生と6年生との間に水泳の意欲に関する項目で有意差が認められ, 学年推移とともに意欲の低下がみられた。教員については, 指導力に自信のない教員は75.4%であったが, 水泳の授業をできればやりたくないと思っている教員は6.6%しかおらず, 水泳の授業担当に消極的ではないことを示した。児童のスイミングスクールの活動経験の有無により, 泳力差がみられるため指導が困難と考える教員が多く, 専門の外部指導員の動員や指導者の増加, 監視体制の充実を望む回答が多くみられた。また, 安全水泳に関わる着衣泳は半数以上の学校で未実施であり, 日本の水泳授業では, 身を守るための水泳指導については十分でないことが明らかとなった。本研究で児童および教員の水泳授業に対する意識と授業の現状を検討した結果, 水泳授業に多くの課題が挙げられ, 今後, 指導体制などの環境面や指導カリキュラムについて改善していく必要が示された。
The purpose of this study was to examine the ideal approach to elementary school swimming lessons in Japan based on responses to questionnaires about swimming lessons distributed to students and school teachers. The subjects included 1,055 elementary school children in the third to sixth grades and 61 teachers. The survey for children had 20 questions in total covering four areas: “swimming ability”, “motivation and interest towards swimming”, “motivation and interest towards elementary school swimming”, and “experience of going to a swimming school”. The survey for teachers had a total of 26 questions covering two areas: “for swimming instruction” and “method of swimming instruction”. Many of the children’s responses indicated that they felt swimming was fun. However, the responses to the question regarding motivation for swimming revealed a significant (p <0.01) reduction in motivation with progression to a higher grade. The survey of teachers showed that 75.4% were not confident in their ability to teach students how to swim. By contrast, only 6.6% wished they did not have to teach swimming, so they did not indicate their reluctance to conduct swimming lessons. In particular, many teachers considered it difficult to teach swimming because of the fact that swimming skill varies depending on whether a child has gone to a swimming school. Thus, many of the responses indicated a need to bring in or increase the number of external professional instructors and to improve the supervision system. One additional finding was that more than half of the schools surveyed had never taught students how to swim when clothed, despite the fact that this is an important water safety skill. Thus it is evident that elementary school swimming lessons in Japan do not provide adequate instruction on how to protect oneself in water. These results suggest that many issues related to elementary school swimming lessons in Japan need to be improved.

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