Departmental Bulletin Paper 日本語の物語文における言語知識の発達過程の考察―発話数・単語数・形態素数・平均発話長の解析―
Developmental Changes in Number of Utterances, Words and Morphemes in First-Language Narratives

稲葉, みどり

5pp.23 - 32 , 2017-03-31 , 愛知教育大学大学院・静岡大学大学院教育学研究科共同教科開発学専攻(後期3年博士課程)
The present research investigates the developmental process of first-language narratives. Fictional stories based on a picture book (Frog, Where are you?; Mayer, 1969) made by Japanese children aged 3 to 11 and Japanese adults are analyzed with respect to how they produced a well-formed narrative. The narrative data was converted into the JCHAT format (Miyata, Morikawa and Muraki, 2004). This data was analyzed using the CLAN programs (MacWinney, 2000). The numbers of utterances, words and morphemes used in a story in each age group were counted. The MLUm (Morpheme MLU) and MLUw (Word MLU) devised to fit to the feature of Japanese language by Miyata (2012) were adopted to calculate MLU (Mean Length of Utterance). The research brought about the following results. There was a small increase in utterances in accordance with increased age. In particular, there is a remarkable increase in the number of Words between 3- to 5-year-olds. The morphemes also showed a large increase between 3- to 5-year-olds. The values of MLUw and MLUm also became higher between 3- to 5-year-olds and attained the TL (target language) adults’ value. These increase in changes appear to occur along with the development of children’s narrative skills, such as constructing the local and the global structures of the story. In comparing the values of MLUm and MLUw, it appears that MLUm is more susceptible to changes. This is in accordance with Miyata’s (2012) contention. However, the value of each approaches the MLUm and MLUw values of an adult at the age of five. This suggests that such a measurement is ill-suited to children above the age of five. As this current study only encompasses the quantitative changes in stories, a more detailed analysis is required into the vocabulary (the number of stated words and the number of differing words), the types and functions of morphemes, and the structure of grammar in utterances, in order to clarify the mechanisms of growth. This may be the subject of future study.

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