Departmental Bulletin Paper 教師トレーニング型日本語教育実習における実習生の言語教育観の変容-SCAT による記録分析から読み取れるもの-
How Did the Teacher Training Program Change the Teacher Trainees' View of Language Education? -Based on SCAT Analysis of Essays-

小原, 亜紀子  ,  稲葉, みどり

4pp.177 - 184 , 2016-03-31 , 愛知教育大学大学院・静岡大学大学院教育学研究科 共同教科開発学専攻
近年、日本語学習者は多様性を増しており、それに対応できる日本語教師の養成が課題となっている。従来の教師トレーニング型に代わり、内省を取り入れた教師成長型研修が有効とされて以来、効果的な方法が模索されている。本稿では、教師トレーニング型評価活動による日本語教育実習を受講した実習生の、実習前後の言語教育観の変容を調査した。リサーチ・クエスチョンは、(1)教師トレーニング型による教室活動の実践は、実習生の持つ言語教育観に変容をもたらすか、(2)どういった点に変容が認められたか、(3)先行研究に報告されている教師成長型プログラム参加者の変容との相違点は何か、の3点である。実習参加者は24名の学部生である。言語教育観の変容は、実習の前と後に書いた「良い言語教師が持つべき資質・能力はどのようなものか」に関する2つのエッセイの記述をSCAT(Steps for Coding and Theorization)により分析、比較した。その結果、24名中23名の実習後のエッセイにおいて、言語教育観の変容が観察された。特に、教師の授業実践力に重点を置いた記述の増加と、学習者の理解度への配慮という新たな観点の出現が、大きな変化として認められた。こうした変化から、この実習について、教師トレーニング型実習としての効果はあったという結論に至った。その一方で、内省については、実習の授業に記述内容の範囲が留まっており、岡崎・岡崎(1997)等で指摘されるような、教室内の出来事の背景にある個人的な経験や所属する社会といったものまでを対象とする範囲には至っておらず、教師トレーニング型実習の限界と課題が明らかになった。
It is necessary for teachers to respond to the increased diversity of Japanese learners in Japanese language classes. Therefore, “teacher development programs (development programs),” which are considered more effective than “teacher training programs for practical teaching methods (methodical programs),” are in their trial stage. “Methodical programs,” in this paper, is defined as teacher training which aims to promote teaching skills, whereas “development programs” emphasize improving teachers' problem-solving abilities in the classroom. This paper surveys how students' views of Japanese-language education were changed through practice teaching utilizing “methodical programs,” with the purpose of planning effective teacher training programs. In this study, essays on the subject of “what are the aptitudes of good language teachers?” written by 24 undergraduate students before and after the practice teaching were analyzed qualitatively by the analytical procedure of SCAT (Steps for Coding and Theorization). The research questions are as follows: 1) Does the practice teaching in methodical programs generate changes in the views of language education? 2) What changes were brought about in the views of language education in this program? 3) What are the differences in the changes which occurred in this program compared with the teacher development programs in the previous studies? The results of the analysis indicate that 23 of 24 students changed their viewpoints after the practice teaching. Noticeable changes appeared in two factors. The first of these is an attitude about the practical ability for implementing classes; 2 students added a description and 10 students changed the descriptive content about this point after the practice. Another change is in the attention given to understanding learners. Before the practice, students had a tendency to try conducting the class activities with the teacher's control. However, after the practice, 5 students added this perspective; indicating that they became conscious to how learners perceive a teacher's behavior. On the other hand, the subjects of their essays are limited to what they experienced in the classroom. They do not extend into their life experiences, or to the social environments behind their decisions or designs in the classroom, which are regarded as important subjects of reflection by Okazaki & Okazaki (1997) .The future challenge is to broaden students' perspectives through reflection.

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