This paper is an unpublished part of my Master's thesis that was submitted to the University of Tokyo in 1971 and entitled The Origin of Agriculture in West Asia: Cultural Developments since the Pleistocene. The information presented here updates my thesis publication in the Kokogaku Zasshi (Journal of the Archaeological Society of Nippon), volume 59-4, as I omitted discussion of results of archaeo-scientific disciplines such as radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis, and analysis of the distributions of wild progenitors of domesticated animals and plants. Although the contents of my original 45 year old manuscript are now outdated, I publish them here to record the status of research of the Near Eastern archaeology in Japan in its infancy and the research circumstances of Near Eastern archaeology itself at that time, which soon drastically changed due to the development of processual archaeology in the United States. Thus, this paper provides a cross section of the history of archaeological thought during this period. Focusing on the Natufian culture that can be divided into Early, Middle, and Late phases of development, the conclusions of this paper are that: (1) The Early Natufian developed during a period of warming and wetting after the last glacial, when the distribution of wild progenitors of domestic plants and animals greatly expanded, and that; (2) Initial domestication of those plants and animals took place during the Late Natufian in the hinterland of the Mediterranean coastal region when the distribution area of wild projenitors was reduced in the cooling period of the Younger Dryas.