Departmental Bulletin Paper レウクトラの戦い以降のアルカディアにおける政治不安とフィガリアの囲壁築造 : イトーメ / フィガリア囲壁様式の考案
Building the Refuge-Walls in Phigaleia on the Arcadian Politics after the Battle of Leuctra in Ancient Greece : The Invention of the Ithome/Phigaleia Masonry Style

勝又, 俊雄

37pp.203 - 231 , 2016-03-31 , 国士舘大学イラク古代文化研究所
Pausanias excluded too much common things like theatre and Temple of Athena Polias and Zeus from his descriptions as well as did in other poleis. For Pausanias the city walls had also been counted as common things.They enclose the site of Phigaleia, extending over 6 km. and its towers and gates still nowadays remain to be there. The wall had been built, based on a masonry called the Ithome/Phigaleia Style by the author, using rectangular trapezoidal stone materials. The masonry for the walls was invented and developed in Arcadian poleis on the first half of the 4^th cent. B.C.After the defeat of Sparta the Pax Spartana had been lost. The Arcadian poleis began to sense vague danger around them, and therefore, to build their own city wall at once, and prepared forthcoming political or military crisis.For dealing with such reasons, the Arcadians invented a method, simple and economical, of masonry for city walls that were also adopted to the enclosing wall of the parts of Phigaleia.The author, in the article, aims to make clear when, how and why the Phigaleians built its own wall enclosing parts of the city. For this purpose, it is discussed, first, what the features of the Ithome/Phigaleia masonry style are, and second, how common its masonry style spreads on city-walls in the nearby poleis from Arcadia and in the neighboring areas like Triphilia and Messenia. Thereby, the facts drawn from the preceding discussions, are compared with political developments with Thebes as a new leader and the first introduction to Greece of new military devices as siege-machine and catapult brought from Sicily on the first half of the 4^th cent. B.C.The facts are drawn from the preceding seven chapters as below:It is made clear, in the chapter 1, what the features of the Ithome/Phigaleia masonry style are. As a result, a distinguished trapezoidal masonry method called the Ithome/Phigaleia Masonry Style is used for the city-wall of Phigaleia where two methods of masonry are observed such as the isodomic course putting horizontally rectangular stones (“Isodomic Trapezoidal (C5 variant & C6 variant)” after R.L. Scranton’s terminology) cut in almost same size, and the irregular course putting stones cut in irregular size (“Irregular Trapezoidal (C1)” after the same terminology).It is discussed in the chapter 2 how long the Phigaleians needed to build their own city-walls using the Ithome/Phigaleia Masonry Style. This Masonry Style was only simple building method that could make the Phigaleians build their city-wall in a short term and thereby had brought so economical effect for the polis treasury if compared with other masonries like the Lesbian or the polygonal. Therefore the Phigaleians could escape quickly while in danger in the politically unstable time for all of the poleis in Arcadia and its neighboring areas.The chapter 3 deals with the Phigaleian city-wall and its relations with the first introduction to Greece of new siege devices as siege-tower and catapult brought from Sicily on the first half of the 4^th cent. B.C.It was clear, as a result, that the Phigaleian city-walls would have been built in certain years since the loss of the Pax Spartana after the Battle of Leuctra (371B.C.) on the second quarter of the 4^th cent. B.C.. since the city-walls had nothing to cope with the introducing the new strong devices to city-siege operations.Relating to the loss of the Spartan hegemony, mentioned in the preceding chapter, the chapter 4 examines how the Phigaleians had taken parts of some political movements from the time on in Arcadia. First, they had supposedly played an unimportant role in the Arcadian League during the post- Spartan periods as their city-state was found in the mountainous western Arcadia. On the other hand, according to Polybius (Book IV and V), they had committed the plots to Megalopolis and Messene undertaken by the Aetolian League and had caused the Civic War. In these periods, their polis became one of the most adequate strongholds due to its un-accessible location for the new siege devices. It is supposed, therefore, that the Phigaleians had been continually exposed itself to menace and anxiety whether or not they had remained independent or avoided to fall into ruin from 371 B.C to 217 B.C.The chapter 5 dealt with what the Phigaleian city-wall had enclosed in the territory of the city-state. It had been resulted that the city-wall had not enclosed the whole of the territory from the polis, but had been a refuge, ‘Fluchtburgen’ after the terminology of E. Kirsten, for its citizens together with their flock to escape from coming danger. Furthermore, the spread of the refuge-wall in the polis depended on its available numbers of garrison.The chapter 6 discussed when the Phigaleian refuge-walls had been built. As a result, they could be raised since the Battle of Leuktra in 371 B.C. to the Battle of Caironeia in 338 B.C., to say more precisely, from the re-settlement on the summit of Mt. Ithome of Messene in 370 B.C. down to the Battle of Mantinea in 362 B.C. just before the introducing the new siege devices to Greece.The chapter 7 compared the Ithome/Phigaleia Masonry Style with the other refuge-walls, still traced in the ruins of ancient poleis from Arcadia, Triphilia and Messenia poleis. The walls of the 20 poleis were examined for this purpose. Excluding both poleis of Stymphalos and Lepreon, the walls from the remaining 18 poleis are commonly characterized by two methods or a single one of masonries such as the isodomic course putting horizontally rectangular stones cut in almost same size, and the irregular course putting stones cut in irregular size. Moreover the 16 poleis from Arcadia occupied the whole of the central area that had played important role in the geopolitics of the 4^th cent. B.C.In conclusion, a distinguished trapezoidal masonry method had been contrived, and had simultaneously appeared both in Phigaleia and the summit of the Mt. Ithome in the very short term from 370 B.C. to 362 B.C. Therefore, its masonry method could call the Ithome/Phigaleia Masonry Style. Then, if there is a wall characterized by the same feature as this style, it has to have been built, influenced by this style, with the same aim, and to be also dated to this term. Thereby constructions for refuge-walls could have occurred in the same time, by the same style and in the extensively wide area in and around Arcadia, and was very unparalleled in the history of ancient Greece.

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