学術雑誌論文 ボトルネック通行権取引制度が利用者の効用に及ぼす影響とパレート改善―スケジュール制約と料金抵抗の異質性に着目して―

坂井, 勝哉  ,  Sakai, Katsuya  ,  日下部, 貴彦  ,  Kusakabe, Takahiko  ,  朝倉, 康夫  ,  Asakura, Yasuo

内容記述
This study proposes a congestion pricing scheme using tradable bottleneck permits (TBP) and Pareto improving even if the revenue is not refunded to drivers. TBP scheme is originally one of the first-best time-varying pricing schemes, but does not always achieve a Pareto improvement when marginal utility of toll cost changes among drivers. This study aims to analyze the effects of TBP on departure time choice of drivers. In particular, we show the time dependent utility of drivers when they have different schedule flexibility and marginal utility of toll cost. The cases with and without TBP scheme are analyti-cally compared. Then, we propose the TBP scheme which is Pareto improving without revenues refunded to drivers. We focus on a one-to-one network with a single bottleneck and employed a departure time choice model to discuss the case that there exists heterogeneity in schedule flexibility and marginal utility of toll cost. We assume two classes for two attributes as the heterogeneity respectively: “busy/free” and “rich/poor”, and formulated the drivers’ utility changes caused by implementation of TBP. In this as-sumption, we show that a Pareto improvement is not achieved, where the utility of “busy-poor” group was decreased by the effect of TBP. We propose partial implementation of TBP as a scheme for a Pareto improvement. In this scheme, the bottleneck capacity is assigned to drivers with and without TBP, where the driver who has a bottleneck permit can pass through the bottleneck without congestion and a driver without it goes through congestion. As a result, we reveal conditions in the amount of the bottleneck per-mits which can satisfy a Pareto improvement. This study finally discusses the requirement for a Pareto improvement that was derived by the proportion of the amount of issued bottleneck permits, and the number of each class drivers.
時間帯別ボトルネック通行権取引制度は一般ネットワークにおいて社会的費用最小化の観点から最も効率的な状態を達成できる.しかし,料金抵抗の大きい利用者は希望時刻の通行権が高価格の場合に買うことができず,渋滞による待ち時間はなくなったとしても,結果的に厚生が低下することが懸念される.本研究では,スケジュール制約と料金抵抗が利用者ごとに異なる場合に,通行権取引制度が利用者のパレート改善に及ぼす影響を分析した.その結果,ボトルネック容量全てに対して通行権取引制度を導入した場合にはパレート改善が必ずしも達成されないのに対して,通行権取引制度をボトルネック容量の一部のみに導入する場合には料金抵抗の小さな利用者のみが通行権を買っていれば均衡状態でパレート改善が達成されることがわかった.

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