Conference Paper Brain Circulation of Asian students in Australia and Japan: Comparing their International Student Policy and Skilled Migration Policy

佐藤, 由利子  ,  Sato, Yuriko

Description
According to the UNESCO statistics, the number of internationally mobile students in the world amounts to 3.6 million in 2010. The most popular destination is USA with 685,000 students, followed by UK (390,000), Australia (271,000), France (260,000), Germany (201,000) and Japan (142,000). Since international students are an important source of skilled workforce, host countries take measures to attract and integrate them in their societies. The US government, for example, sets a quota of 20,000 H-1B high-skill visa for those who obtain masters or higher degrees in American universities. Australia had allowed international students to apply for permanent residency in the General Skilled Migration program after graduation, though there was a policy change in 2012. The Japanese government has supported international students' job search, as a result, 11,647 students found their jobs in Japanese companies/institutions in 2013. Percentage of former international students among skilled foreign workforce is high in Australia and Japan compared to other OECD countries.Retain of former international students in study destination countries was once called brain drain but recently renamed to brain circulation, considering their information dissemination and frequent move to their home countries. They are supposed to be a catalyst for change in their home and destination countries.Pattern of their brain circulation will be affected by various factors including the international student policy and skilled migration policy in destination countries. The author will pick up the cases of Australia and Japan and discuss the factors which affect the brain circulation of Asian students.

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