紀要論文 西周の《区別-連結》の哲学 ―「実証主義」と「天の思想」を包括する体系 ―

森下, 直貴  ,  Morishita, Naoki

pp.1 - 21 , 2017-03-30 , 浜松医科大学
ISSN:0914-0174
内容記述
In Japanese history of philosophy, Amane Nishi is regarded not as a genuine philosopher but as an enlightenment-thinker, whereas he is unanimously praised as “the father of Japanese philosophy.” The reason is that he was the positivist as well as the utilitarian. However, he expressed the faith in “Ten (i.e. Heaven),” Japanese metaphysical or divine entity. The concept of “Ten” is inherited from Kogaku school of Confucianism in Tokugawa era, and derived from Kukai’s esoteric Buddhism in ancient era. Therefore, Nishi’s philosophy remains vague yet, as long as the relation between positivism and “Ten” within his thought is not elucidated. This paper condenses Nishi’s philosophy into three theses, aiming to comprehend it completely. The first is〈 Relation i.g. “Ri (Reason)”〉 thesis. Nishi raised it against Shushigaku school of Confucianism. Compering this thesis with thoughts of Shushigaku, Kogaku, or Conte and J.S.Mill, Nishi’s philosophy is characterized as the perspective of distinguishing and relating every thing in the actual world. The second is〈Knowledge / Faith〉 thesis, his fundamental view on religion. Interpreting implications of this thesis, the structure of relationships among science, metaphysics, religion and morality is lighted up. Their co-related structure of every thing, which is mediated by “Ri” and suspended by “Ten,” is the Nishi’s very system of philosophy. The third is〈 Feeling = Brain〉 thesis. This is the basis of bringing〈 distinction-connection〉 into the world. Here is followedhow this thesis makes sciences unified, building a bridge between physiology and psychology. And also how it makes utilitarian ethics systematic, integrating personal, inter-personal and societal levels. The core of Nishi’s philosophy exists in his perspective of〈 distinction-connection〉. This is one of the pictures of the “philosophical thinking.” From this perspective, he tried to divide and integrate all actual beings, including human activities, for example, science and philosophy, metaphysics and religion, physics and psychology, physiology and psychology, simple and complex feeling, religion and morality, morality and law, and so on. His “system of philosophy” embodies itself in such inclusiveness. And in Japanese metaphysical tradition, the actual world substantially means “Ten and Chi (i.e. Heaven and Earth)”. Therefore, his philosophy also includes the first attempt of “Japanese metaphysics.”
浜松医科大学紀要 第31号(2017)
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http://hikumano.hama-med.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/10271/3158/3/kiyo31_no1.pdf

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