||Structural and immunological effects of skin cryoablation in a mouse model
糟谷, 啓Kasuya, Akira
Cryoablation is therapeutically applied for various disorders in several organs, and skin diseases are typical targets as this cryotherapy has been widely used for viral warts, benign tumors, and actinic keratosis. The main mechanisms of cryoablation consist of direct freezing effect on skin constituents, thrombosis formation in microcirculation, and subsequent immunological responses. Among them, however, the immunological mechanism remains unelucidated, and it is an issue how the direct freezing injury induces immunological consequences. We established a mouse cryoablation model with liquid nitrogen applied to the shaved back skin, and used this system to study the immunological excitement. After application of liquid nitrogen, the thermal decrease ratio was -25°C/sec or less and the lowest temperature was less than -100°C, which was sufficient to induce ulceration. Destruction of cornified layer and necrosis of epidermal cells were observed in transmission electron microscopy image, and increased transepidermal water loss and skin permeability were detected by the functional measurements. By flow cytometry, antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs), including PDCA1+B220+CD19- plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and CD11c+ myeloid DCs, as well as neutrophils and macrophages were increased in subcutaneous tissue. In parallel, the mRNA expressions of interferon α1 which are known as pDC-producing cytokines, was elevated. We also found marked degranulation of mast cells, providing a possibility that released histamine attracts pDCs. Finally, FITC migration assay revealed that pDCs and CD11c+ DCs emigrated from the cryoablated skin to the draining lymph nodes. Our study suggests that cryoablation induces destruction of the barrier/epidermis, accumulation of pDCs and CD11c+ DCs to the skin, and migration of DCs to regional lymph nodes. Viral elements or tumor cell lysates released from damaged keratinocytes may stimulate the DCs, thereby leading to antiviral or antitumor effect.