紀要論文 自ら学ぶ意欲を育てる生徒指導の実践的研究 : 自ら考える力を育てるための問題解決学習の改善を通して
A practical study of student guidance to learn by themselves : Through the improvement of the problem-solving learning to cultivate their ability to think by themselves

濱保,和治  ,  岡田,大爾

49pp.9 - 22 , 2016-12 , 広島国際学院大学
ISSN:1345-3858
NII書誌ID(NCID):AA11419398
内容記述
According to the Student Instruction Epitome (MEXT,2010,pp.24),“ it is necessary for students to have their own goal and tasks toward their learning, and to cultivate their abilities and attitudes to autonomously think, make a judgement, and take action to solve problems.” This means that it is essential to conduct Problem-Solving Learning such as inquiry learning and discovery learning. However, Hamayasu (2015) points out that the problems with Problem-Solving Leaning is that although students tend to conduct experiments with their interests, they tend not to have fun in the process of doing the experiment or solving problems, such as expecting the results, giving the reasons of the result expectations, or thinking about the method of the research. This means that it is necessary to improve Problem-Solving Learning through the use of meaningful learning activities. Therefore, in order to conduct research on students’ attitude toward science and conduct meaningful Problem-Solving Learning with a sense of purpose, we developed three areas for improving Problem-Solving Learning: (1) the process of effective introductions, (2) the process of how to develop Problem-Solving Learning, and (3) the process of making students apply their acquired knowledge to the problem-solving learning. Also, we conducted an experimental class to verify the effects of these variables.
生徒指導提要(平成22年)では,「自ら学び,自ら考える力」を育成するためには,「生徒が学習に対して自ら目標や課題をもち,自ら考え,自ら判断し,自ら行動しながら主体的に問題を解決していく能力や態度をはぐくむ必要がある」とし,探究学習や発見学習など問題解決学習を行うことの必要性を説いている。しかし,問題解決学習における問題点として,濱保(2015)は,生徒達は観察・実験に対して興味・関心を持って取り組む姿勢を見せるが,予想したり,予想の理由や実験方法を考えたりするなど探究の方法や過程に楽しさを感じていないという調査結果を報告している。この改善のためには,問題解決学習を意味のあるものに改善する必要がある。そこで,生徒の理科授業に対する意識を調査し,見通しや目的意識を持った意味のある問題解決学習を行うために,①効果的な導入の工夫,②問題解決学習の授業展開の工夫,③身に付けた知識を関連付けて活用させる工夫の3 点の授業改善の視点を開発し,検証授業を計画・実施し,その効果を検証した。
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http://harp.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/hkg/file/12030/20180320121155/AA11419398_49_p9.pdf

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