[要旨]近年,国をあげて農業を活性化させようとして,農地法改正により耕作放棄地などのまだ農業に使える士地の有効活用も可能となりつつある。一方,東南アジア諸国とのEPAやEUとのEPA交渉あるいは,日本が批准したTPPの影響による農業分野の海外ヘのよりいっそうの市場開放により,日本の農業が大きく変わろうとしている。そこで,日本の農業及び食事の基本となる米を取り上げ,日本の米の生産・消費および輸出入について現状を明確にし,人口の減少に伴う需要の減少をも加味して,今後の日本の農業の発展にはどのような対策が必要であるかを考察し,また米の加工品である日本酒の輸出についても検討することが本論文の目的である。[Abstract] In recent years, agriculture has been attracting the attention of many Japanese people and some groups have been striving to develop nationwide initiatives to revitalize agriculture. In Japan, the revised Agricultural Land Act has enabled more effective use of land, including abandoned farmland, used for agriculture. Outside Japan, negotiations are underway for the country to sign EPAs with Southeast Asian countries and the EU, while the agricultural market has been opened as a result of the effects of TPP, which was ratified by Japan. Although the future of the TPP is currently uncertain, Japanese agriculture is going through drastic changes. In light of these circumstances surrounding agricultural products in recent years, the objective of this paper is to focus on rice, a fundamental element of Japanese agriculture and food. The current state of its production, consumption, as well as import and export in Japan will be analyzed. By taking into account the decrease in demand resulting from population decline, we also consider measures needed to support the future development of Japanese agriculture and study the possibility of exporting Japanese sake as a processed rice product.