[要旨]戦後日本の教員養成は「大学における教員養成」と「教員免許状授与の開放制」の2大原則のもとで教師教育が行われている. 戦前の中等レベルの学校で行われていた教員養成が大学で行われることにより, 教師の社会的地位も上昇し, また, 開放制免許制度により師範学校による閉鎖的な教員養成は廃止された. しかし, 教員養成制度は普遍的なシステムとして完成されておらず, 教員の需給関係により縮小 ・再編等の議論が絶えず起こり, 恒久的なシステムの構築が課題となっている. 本研究は, 教員養成制度に改革がなされる際の改革の論点を歴史的に考察することを目的とする. その基礎的な研究として改革論議の中で, 明治初期における師範学校存廃論争に焦点を置いて考察する. [Abstract]After the war, the teacher training of Japan is done under the principle "Teacher training at the university" and "Open system in teacher education" Teacher's social position rose by the teacher training's being done at the university after the war. Moreover, closing teacher training by Normal school was abolished by the System of open licensing degree. However, the teacher training system has not been completed as a universal system. The discussions of the reduction and reorganization, etc. always happen because of teacher's supply-demand situation. The construction of a permanent system becomes a problem. The present study historically considers the controversy of the teacher training system reform. The controversy on continuing and abolition at the beginning of the Meiji Era is assumed to be a fundamental study. The controversy on continuing and abolition of the first and the second has happened in early years of Meiji Era. A focus of argument of the first was a problem on the schooling system. A focus of argument of the 2nd was a problem of the quality of the elementary school teacher. And argument was developed into argument of whether Normal school is abolished or continued. Fundamental argument was whether a teacher education engine is made especially.