Departmental Bulletin Paper 保健体育科における集団行動の位置づけとあり方 : 戦後の論説にみる集団行動の必要・不要論の位相と論理
The Possibilities of Vocal Music Instruction Using Movement

田端, 真弓

37 ( 2 )  , pp.225 - 240 , 2015-10 , 大分大学教育福祉科学部
The purpose of this study is to clarify in what way "group action and behavior" is needed as a school subject in physical education (PE) lessons in postwar Japan. Additionally, this study looks at the logic of critical debates surrounding the incorporation of "group action and behavior." PE lessons in postwar Japan were democratized under the influence of the United States. As ideas for PE lessons shifted from the prewar to the postwar period, PE teachers experienced great shock, became confused, and were unable to create new PE teaching methods. Furthermore, most of teachers hoped that military drill (kyoren) and orderexercises (chltsujo undo) would be revived, as they were the main prewar teaching contents. "Group action and behavior" made the first appearance in the course of study for PE in1953, and it has had uncertain definition since then. The introduction of "group action and behavior" had frequently been discussed among PE teachers, researchers and other teachers, and PE journals had included oplnions about it. Some leaders had criticized "group action and behavior, " which had had no relation the essence of PE lessons, indicating it had been a representation of militarism and a typical Japanese education method of pursuing an aesthetic sense. However, the course of study and the instruction manual have showed the incorporation of "group action and behavior" to be a necessity since 1953 because it is considered to be very useful in eliminating wasted time and maintaining order during class and keeping students safe during their exercises. This means that PE teachers might be obsessed not with learning contents but with efficiency in their classes. Nowadays, it is necessary for all teachers to monitor consistency of instruction and evaluation. In conclusion, teachers have to carry out PE classes based not on a nonsensical "group action and behavior" but on learning objectives.

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