Departmental Bulletin Paper 冷戦下の韓国の「自主国防」に関する考察 : 1960 年代後半から70 年代初頭の朴正熙政権を中心に
A Study of the Korean 'Self-Reliant Defense' Policy in the Cold-War Era : Focusing on the Park Chung-hee Administration from the late 1960s to the early 1970s

鄭, 敬娥

37 ( 1 )  , pp.59 - 74 , 2015-04 , 大分大学教育福祉科学部
本稿は,朴正熙政権の「自主国防」論を60 年代後半から70年代初頭の朝鮮半島をめぐる安保情勢のなかで考察し,その内容と性格を明らかにするものである。「自主国防」は60 年代の北朝鮮の「四大軍事路線」の定式化とゲリラ浸透という朝鮮半島内部の要因と,「ニクソン・ドクトリン」や駐韓米軍撤退に代表されるアメリカの同盟政策の変化といった外部的要因に対応するために主張された。その具体的な内容は,大衆動員体制の確立と防衛産業・重化学産業の育成であり,核開発政策もその延長線上に位置づけられる。しかし,その「自主」とは必ずしも韓米同盟を否定するものではなく,その意味において「自主国防」は対北朝鮮抑止力を前提としながらも,外交的交渉力の向上の手段としての性格を強く持っていた。
This paper aims to clarify thecontents and characterof the Korean`self-reliant defense' policy in the Cold-War era. It concentrates especiallyon the defense policies of the Park Chung-hee administration from the second half of the 1960s to the beginning of the 1970s.It is considered that they were adopted in reaction to the external factor of the changing Korea-U.S. alliance, while responding to the security situation inside the Korean Peninsula at that time. On the one hand, the policy of `self-reliant defense'was asserted in response to the internal factor of the formalization of the "4 large-military approach" by North Korea in the 1960s and their guerrilla attackson the South. On the other hand, the change in the U.S. alliance policy represented by the "Nixon Doctrine" and the partial withdrawal of U. S. forces from South Koreabecame the external factor behind the policy.The concrete contents werethe establishment of a public mobilization organization, and the development of the defense and heavy chemical industries. Furthermore, the nuclear development policy was anextension of these policies. However, the `self-reliant defense' policy did not necessarily rule out a U.S.-South Korea alliance, rather the policy very much had the character of a means of improving diplomatic bargaining ability, on the assumption that it would constitute a deterrent for North Korea.

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