Departmental Bulletin Paper 看護師の業務上の危険因子に対するリスクイメージと影響要因
Risk image and the associated factors affecting work-related risks among nurses

吉田, 真紀  ,  長谷部, 真木子  ,  YOSHIDA, Maki  ,  HASEBE, Makiko

23 ( 2 )  , pp.93 - 104 , 2015-10-31 , 秋田大学大学院医学系研究科保健学専攻
本研究は, 看護師の業務上の危険因子に対するリスクイメージとその影響要因を明らかにすることを目的とした.全国300の病院に所属している看護師計900名を対象とし, 郵送による無記名自記式質問紙調査法で行った. 業務上の危険因子は,【結核】【肝炎】【HIV】【放射線】【ラテックス】【抗がん剤】の6因子とした. 調査内容は, 危険因子に対する知識度, 危険因子による危険体験の有無, リスクイメージの把握は, 「リスクイメージ尺度」を参考にSD 法による7段階で調査した. 危険因子に対する知識度で知識高群の割合が最も高かったのは肝炎(65.8%) で,知識低群の割合が最も高かったのはラテックス(78.2%) であった. 危険因子からの危険な体験が「ある」と回答した割合が最も高かったのは肝炎(52.9%) であった. 各危険因子に対するリスクイメージは, 肝炎・HIV で脅威度が高値であり, ラテックスは, 新奇性の項目が高値であった. リスクイメージの属性での比較では, 肝炎・抗がん剤・結核の体験あり群で未知性・新奇性の値が低く, 脅威度の値が高かった. リスクイメージには, 認知・体験・看護師経験年数が影響している可能性があり, 業務上の危険因子から防護行動をとり, 行動変容につなげるためには, 今後の継続教育の在り方を再考する必要性が示唆された.
The objective of the present study was to clarify the effect of risk image and factors on work-relatedrisk factors among nurses. An unspecified, self-reported questionnaire survey was distributed by mail to900 nurses from 300 nationwide hospitals. Work-related risk factors included the following six factors:tuberculosis, hepatitis, HIV, radiation, latex, and anti-cancer drugs. The survey contents includedknowledge with respect to risk factors, the presence danger due to risk factors, and the understanding ofrisk image. These aspects were investigated in seven stages by the SD method, using the risk imagescale as a reference. The subjects demonstrated the highest level of knowledge on the risk factorsassociated with hepatitis (65.8%), while latex (78.2%) had the highest rate among subjects of the lowknowledge group. Hepatitis (52.9%) had the highest rate of nurses who responded, yes, to experiences ofdanger due to risk factors. Regarding the present state of risk image with respect to each risk factor,hepatitis and HIV had the highest threat level, with novel items showing the highest values. In thecomparison of the attributes associated with risk image, the unknown and novel values were low in groupswho had experience in a high-risk settings with hepatitis, anti-cancer drugs, and tuberculosis. Moreover,knowledge, experience, and years of experience as a nurse may play a part in risk image. The resultssuggest the need to reconsider continuous education in order for nurses to take preventive actions toprotect against work-related risk factors and indicated that education is connected with changes inbehavior.

Number of accesses :  

Other information