紀要論文 国際連合憲章の起草と人種平等への言及

八丁, 由比

内容記述
In 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco after the United NationsConference on International Organization. In the first chapter, “Purposes and Principles,” four purposes are stated, and one of them refers to racial equality: to “achieve international co-operation . . . in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.” Considering that President Wilson, 25 years ago, refused to accept the Japanese proposal for inserting a short clause about the abolition of racial discrimination into the Covenant of the League of Nations, the United Nation Charter accepted to bear a responsibility this time. Based on official documents of the time and secondary works, this article examines the origins and the driving forces both within and outside of the Roosevelt Administration that led to the inclusion of the clause. It draws attention to the substantial contribution of a private organization such as the Commission to Study the Organization of Peace and its close relationship with government officials. It concludes that the reference to racial equality was not the result of single organization or country, but of various countries and people who were concerned about the nature of the new international organization.
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