The constraints on women's marriage, childbirth and employment, and effects of work-life balance policies : empirical analysis using Japanese household panel surveysThe constraints on women's marriage, childbirth and employment, and effects of work-life balance policies : empirical analysis using Japanese household panel surveys
31(31) , 2016 , Society of Business and Commerce, Keio University
This paper investigates the effects of economic and time constraints on women's marriage, childbirth, and employment. According to our analyses using household panel surveys, we find the following. (1) Women who graduated from college and live with their parents have a high likelihood of marriage. Women in full-time employment and those earning a high hourly wage tend to get married. Regular employees whose working hours and commuting times are short tend to get married. (2) In regard to continued employment after marriage, the husband's income has negative effects but the wife's hourly wage rate has positive effects on continued female employment. Women who can easily take childcare leave tend to continue working. (3) The likelihood of childbirth increases with the husband's time spent on housework and childcare. (4) A higher husband's income discourages the wife's continued employment after childbirth, but women earning a higher hourly wage rate are more likely to continue working after giving birth. In addition, the likelihood of continued employment after childbirth is higher among women in regular employment compared with non-regular employment. Long working hours and long commuting times discourage women from continuing to work after childbirth, while childcare leave and the availability of childcare facilities have positive effects. (5) The more time the husband spends on housework and childcare, the more likely the wife is to return to work after childbirth, though the wife is less likely to do so when the husband's income is higher. Focusing on differences between birth cohorts of women, young cohorts are significantly less likely to get married but are more likely to continue working, even when holding equal the above-mentioned economic and time constraints and support for work-life balance. The likelihood of continued regular employment after childbirth is high in young cohorts. However, the likelihood of continued non-regular employment is low among non-regular employees in the young cohorts.