Egypt : 'Gift of the Nile' or prisoner of the Nile? : changing international politics in the Nile basinEgypt : 'Gift of the Nile' or prisoner of the Nile? : changing international politics in the Nile basin
富田広士教授退職記念号 The article discusses Egypt's political relations with other countries of the Nile river system in the modern era. After introducing the ancient concept of Egypt as the 'Gift of the Nile' it moves to the era of the modernisation of Egypt since the time of Mohammed Ali in the early the 19th century. His approach to modernisation lacked significant developments for the upstream Nile ; but British imperialism in the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th century saw moves to dam both the White Nile and the Blue Nile upstream of Egypt, which were essentially for the purpose of safeguarding the lower Nile: Egypt and Sudan. Since the mid-20th century and the independence of all upstream riparian states from imperial control new thinking about the Nile has grown in those countries, especially Ethiopia, and consequently new concerns for Egypt. In the light of the socio-economic and environmental challenges facing the country the article will focus on Egypt's changing international relations with regard to developments on the upstream Nile.