Journal Article 進化教育学とは何か : 教育への生物学的アプローチ

安藤, 寿康

(136)  , pp.195 - 236 , 2016-3 , 三田哲學會
特集 : 教育学寄稿論文
According to Caro & Hauser (1992)'s definition of active teaching of non-human animals, education (teaching) is an altruistic behavior which emerges only in the presence of naïve individuals and makes them to learn something. It was evolutionarily attained following individual and observational learning and not attained as a cultural artifact (Homo educans hypothesis). Three levels of education should be distinguished ; educational behavior (specific education-facilitating behavior such as showing, explaining, forbidding and so on), educational activity (a set of educational behaviors isolated from daily lives) and educational system (well-organized institutional set of educational activities by nations or communities). Educational behavior is performed to survive and reproduce not only directly but also indirectly, and not only explicitly but also implicitly. Homo educans hypothesis was verified in cognitive, life historical, cultural anthropological, archeological and neuroscientific evidences. Educational motivation consists of supportive and controlling aspects, both of which are related to indirect reciprocity and necessary to maintain social order and stability. An ability to reify knowledge, which is necessary for education, is a resource of cultural creation and accumulation because it enables manipulation, reproduce and accumulation of knowledge. Because all individual differences of human abilities are genetically influenced from a behavioral genetic perspective, some innovations created by individuals with genetically special characteristics become cultural heritage by education to genetic neighbors

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