Departmental Bulletin Paper 小学校の通常学級における学級経営方略 ─教師による児童への働きかけの観察から─
Classroom Management Strategies in Japanese Elementary School: Observation of Teachers' Behavior in Regular Classrooms

寺坂, 明子

66pp.121 - 133 , 2018-02-28 , 大阪教育大学
ISSN:24329630
NCID:AA12812439
Description
本研究は,小学校の通常学級においてどのような教師の働きかけが用いられているのかを観察により明らかにし,先行研究の知見を踏まえながら能動的な学級経営の方略を提案することを目的として行われた。14学級における観察記録から22種類の教師行動が見出され,それらは行動の指示,先行事象方略,適切な行動の強化,不適切な行動への反応的対応の4つのカテゴリーに分類された。これら4カテゴリーの割合から,とくに低学年では児童の行動の逸脱が多く,教師は反応的な対応を取りやすいことが示され,問題行動を起こりにくくする能動的なアプローチを用いることが重要であると考えられた。
According to a national investigation, 6.5% of Japanese school children show difficulties in learning and behavior in the classroom. To deal with the difficulties, there is a need for teachers to increase repertoire of classroom management strategies. Although several evidence-based strategies are suggested in the literature, the actual use of these strategies in natural classroom settings is little investigated in Japan. In order to understand the current practice, we observed teacher behaviors for managing children's learning and behavior in classrooms at a Japanese elementary school, and classified them into categories based on their functions. Descriptive data of behaviors of 14 teachers were collected in 14 classrooms from grade one to six during 30 class hours. One researcher and three undergraduate students majored in education classified 485 descriptions of the observed teacher behaviors and identified 22 strategies which were further classified into four categories: instruction of behavior, antecedent strategies, reinforcement of positive behaviors, and reactive response to inappropriate behaviors. This result is the first to show the variety of teachers' classroom management strategies used in Japanese classroom settings. The result also showed that teachers in classrooms of younger children used more reactive strategies. These results were discussed in light of their implications for teacher trainings.
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