Classroom Management Strategies in Japanese Elementary School: Observation of Teachers' Behavior in Regular Classrooms
133 , 2018-02-28 , 大阪教育大学
According to a national investigation, 6.5% of Japanese school children show difficulties in learning and behavior in the classroom. To deal with the difficulties, there is a need for teachers to increase repertoire of classroom management strategies. Although several evidence-based strategies are suggested in the literature, the actual use of these strategies in natural classroom settings is little investigated in Japan. In order to understand the current practice, we observed teacher behaviors for managing children's learning and behavior in classrooms at a Japanese elementary school, and classified them into categories based on their functions. Descriptive data of behaviors of 14 teachers were collected in 14 classrooms from grade one to six during 30 class hours. One researcher and three undergraduate students majored in education classified 485 descriptions of the observed teacher behaviors and identified 22 strategies which were further classified into four categories: instruction of behavior, antecedent strategies, reinforcement of positive behaviors, and reactive response to inappropriate behaviors. This result is the first to show the variety of teachers' classroom management strategies used in Japanese classroom settings. The result also showed that teachers in classrooms of younger children used more reactive strategies. These results were discussed in light of their implications for teacher trainings.