Departmental Bulletin Paper サッカー選手における有酸素運動能力が疲労時のパスの正確性に与える影響
The Aerobic Exercise Capacity of Soccer Player Affects in the Accuracy of the Ball Passing at the Prolonged Fatigue Phase

清水, 万輝  ,  高野, 綾斗  ,  井上, 功一  ,  榎木, 泰介

66pp.13 - 20 , 2018-02-28 , 大阪教育大学
ISSN:24329622
NCID:AA12812428
Description
本研究は,大学体育会男子サッカー部に所属する男子大学生39名を対象とし,有酸素運動能力が疲労時のパスの正確性に与える影響について検討を行った。対象集団に12分間走を実施し,その走行距離からゴールキーパーを除く上位群5名と下位群5名を抽出した。運動負荷として,宮城らが報告したサッカーにおける試合の動きを再現するシミュレーションプロトコールを45分間,実施した。この前後に,パスの成功率を評価するパススキルテストを行い,安静時と疲労時におけるパスの正確性の変化を検証した。パススキルテストについて,シミュレーションプロトコールを実施する前の安静時では,パスの成功率に12分間走上位群と下位群で有意差はみられなかった。しかし,シミュレーションプロトコール実施後の疲労時では,パス成功回数の減少率において,12分間走上位群が0.7±7.7%の減少であったのに対し,12分間走下位群では-24.9±8.5%とパス成功率が大きく減少し,有意な差を示した(P<0.05)。パススキルテスト実施時の心拍数をみると,安静時・疲労時において2群間で有意差はなかった。一方,45分間のシミュレーションプロトコール実施時の平均心拍数では,12分間走上位群の方が下位群よりも有意に高い値を示した(p<0.05)。有酸素能力の高い12分間走上位群は,疲労時においても正確なパスを判断・実行することができた。一方,12分間走下位群は疲労時において,パスの正確性が大きく低下する結果となった。両群間でパススキルテスト時の心拍数に差はなかったが,疲労時の巧緻性において,有酸素能力が影響を与えることが示唆された。
This study examined whether ability of aerobic exercise in soccer player gave the influences in accuracy of the ball passing at the prolonged fatigue phase. After 39 college soccer players engaged in 12 minutes running test, we pick up 5 players from the top and bottom derive from the results of 12 minutes running mileage. The simulation protocol, produced the movement in the soccer game reported by Miyagi et al., were loaded as prolonged aerobic exercise. Before and after engaged in simulation protocol, the pass skill test was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the ball passing rate. Then, we examined the change in the accuracy of the ball passing rate at the rest and fatigue condition. Regarding the pass skill test, there was no significant difference in the accuracy of the ball passing rate for the 12-minute running upper group and the lower rank group at rest condition before the simulation protocol was performed. However, at the fatigue phase after the simulation protocol, the accuracy of the ball passing rate was decrease only 0.7 ± 7.7% in the 12-minute running upper group, while was decreased -24.9 ± 8.5% in the lower group. The pass success ratio was greatly reduced in the lower group, showing a significant difference (P<0.05). At the pass skill test, there was no significant difference in the heart rate between the two groups both at rest and fatigue condition. On the other hand, the mean heart rate during the 45-minute simulation protocol showed a significantly higher value in the upper group than in the lower group (p<0.05). The high-aerobic 12-minute running superior group was able to judge and execute an accurate ball passing even during fatigue phase. In contrast, in the 12 minute running lower group, the accuracy of the ball passing was significantly decreased at fatigue phase. There was no difference in the heart rate during the pass skill test between the two groups, then it was suggested that the aerobic ability has an influence on the accuracy especially at the fatigue.
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