International Labor Migration of Female Nurse from the Philippines to Kuwait
宮内, 久光 ,
稲, 綾香 ,
Miyauchi, HisamitsuIna, Ayaka
移民研究 = Immigration Studies
84 , 2017-08 , 沖縄移民研究センター , Center for Okinawa Migration Studies
In the globalized modern, a new trend is emerging in the international migrant of labor. In other words, the migration of workers with advanced skills and the role of women are increasing. As a profession occupying a large proportion of the workers with advanced skills and the women, a nurse is usable. Especially, Philippines is the largest exporter of nurses. On the other hand,Middle East countries have accepted many Filipino nurses. The migration of population has been studied in three aspects, a migration stream, exterior environment and individuals of migrants. However, the research of the individuals of migrants did not proceed because carrying out a field survey is difficult in Middle East countries.In this research, we conduct questionnaires on Filipino female nurses who moved the international labor to Kuwait and clarify the aspects of individuals of migrants such as their family backgrounds, careers of migration and migratory process quantitatively. In addition, following the consideration, this research aims to make a geographical schematic diagram on the mechanism of the bilateral international migrations of labor.First of all, their birthplaces are dispersed throughout the Philippines, but in particular the Metropolitan Area, Manila and its adjacent Central Luzon Region are relatively large. Both regions are economically rich and related to the fact that there are many families that are rich enough to allow the children to go to college. Of their siblings, 1.2 people have experience immigrating to foreign countries. Approximately 30% of the respondents to the questionnaire have experienced migration to Kuwait.They are all go to university and are studying for four years at nurse training course. The location of the university is concentrated in the Metropolitan Area of Manila, but also distributed throughout the country. Even women born in rural areas can learn nursing at universities in the same region. After graduation, after they gained experience of nurses in the Philippines, they moved to Kuwait in the late 20s.Third, we consider a migratory process. As the reason why they decided to work in a foreigncountry, about 70% of respondents answered high salary and 40% would like to raise their expertise at advanced medical settings. Moreover, when moving to Kuwait, the number of people invited from relatives and friends who lives in Kuwait was 40%, and we could confirm that the social network is important for the movement. In addition, there are many people who are using employment agencies, and we can also confirm the importance of such mediators.Therefore, by using a Push-Pull Theory as a prerequisite, we presented a model of a migration mechanism with sufficient conditions of Migration System Theory.