Review : Positive and Negative Effects on Nature Resources by Tourism
松本, 晶子Matsumoto-Oda, Akiko
観光科学 = Journal of Tourism Sciences
27 , 2016-12-01 , 琉球大学大学院観光科学研究科 , Graduate School of Tourism Sciences, University of the Ryukyus
The purpose of this study is to review positive and negative effects of tourism on wildlife conservation from ecological viewpoints. International tourist arrivals have increased from 527 million globally in 1995 to 1133 million in 2014. In Japanese tourism markets, a share of cultural heritages is known to be large. On the other hand, both of nature-based tourism and ecotourism have been very popular leisure activities in Europe and North America, becoming a business worth millions of dollars annually. Current lack of enthusiasm by Japanese to nature-based tourism and ecotourism suggests that Japanese tourism in this area has a potential of development. If so, it is predicted that usage frequency of natural resources will grow. Therefore, the conservation of wild animals as tourist resources is necessary. Major causes of wildlife extinction are habitat destruction and poaching. "Tourism" is the industry that was promoted by United Nations as one of activity to reduce environmental degradation and poverty. Most people agree that tourism create funding mechanism in order to conserve wildlife directly or indirectly. Tourism, however, changes animal behaviors and may bring their extinction, and an ecological cascade may cause extinction from one species to many species. It causes an argument that tourism has an ambiguous gain or loss in conservation of wild animals and biodiversity. This gain/loss should be cleared in the future. Although conservationists depend on tourism for conservation fund, tourists might easily reverse their decision about travel destination by many causes such as danger of war, or infection, or economic deterioration. When tourists decreased, ecological conservation becomes difficult under such circumstances. We need to understand the risk of excessive reliance.