Departmental Bulletin Paper 多良間島における染料植物の民俗利用に関する調査研究
Folk Dyeing Using Plants on Tarama Island, Okinawa Prefecture

前堂, 結  ,  仲間, 勇栄  ,  陳, 碧霞  ,  来間, 玄次  ,  Maedo, Yui  ,  Nakama, Yuei  ,  Chen Bixia  ,  Kurima, Genji

In this study we interviewed the local knowledgeable people in terms of the traditional dyeing plants and methods for the costumes used in "hachigatsu odori" (a local festival for harvest celebration held annually in August of the lunar calendar), which was designated as an Important Intangible Folk Cultural Properties of Japan, and conducted dyeing experiments based on the information obtained from the interviews. At present, the fabric of the costumes used in "hachigatsu odori" are dyed with man-made synthetic dyes, however, dyes from herbs and trees were used to dye costume fabrics in the past on Tarama Island. Various plants have been used to extract colors, e.g.,fukugi (Garcinia subelliptica), terihaboku (Calophyllum inophyllum), towel gourd (Luffa cylindrica), sharinhai (Rhaphiofepis indica ssp. umbellata), and yaeyama aoki (Morinda citrifolia). In particular,fitkugi trees were widely used to extract yellow color to dye the costumes in the parts of hakama (a traditional Japanese clothing resembling skirt-like trousers), haori (coat), furoshiki (wrapping cloth), and flags. The process of dyeing from fukugi varies significantly depending on the material to be dyed, the time and method of soaking the material in boiled water, and methodology involved in the transfer of color to the textiles. Fukugi tree stem was hit with a hammer to help separate the bark the stem, and then barked as natural dyeing material. Then, the barks were soaked and boiled in water in a large pot. The period of heating was not fixed. There existed three essentiul ways of fixing colors to the textiles or fibers; 1) Soak and heat the material in water, and then dye the textiles in the liquid made from the boiled down bark. 2) Soak the textile in the liquid made from boiled down barks and wood-ash liquid separately. 3) Soak the textile in the mixed liquid that made from boiled down barks and wood-ash liquid. We found that the best way to "fix" color or the fastest way to transfer the color is as follows. The bark should be soaked and heated in water for 2 hours. The boiled down bark liquid has a pH value of 4.85 and Baume of 3.0. After mixing wood-ash and water in 1:2 volume ratio, we obtained the wood-ash liquid with a pH value at 10.5 and Baume at 4.0. Finally, the above mentioned color fixing method 2) was used. Soak the textile in the liquid made from boiled down barks and wood-ash liquid separately. It can be concluded that in the past, the costumes used for "hachigatsu odori must have been dyed in a manner similar to the above conditions.

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