||カント哲学と平和の探究 : 日本における永遠平和論の研究とその課題
20 , 2017-03-30 , 法政大学文学部
Today wars and conflicts remain ongoing on a global scale, and the political situation in East Asia is as tense as it was before the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1894. The current world situation appears to require a re-emergence of the perpetual peace envisioned by Immanuel Kant in 1795. However, his philosophy and theory of perpetual peace are no longer valid in theircurrent form against the background of today's globalization and the resulting intricate intertwining of international relations. Accordingly, this paper reviews the theory of perpetual peace from the perspectives of (1) ascertaining whether the theory predicted the general trends observed in modern society, and (2) identifying contemporary issues that extend beyond the frame work of the theory. The paper first elucidates the significance and roles of the theory in philosophical studies in Japan, with focus on those of Kant. This is followed by a discussion on the history of controversies over the theory in Japan and a look at their historical significance in relation to social and ideological backgrounds. The paper then clarifies the significance of studies on the theory of perpetual peace in Japan in the present context and outlines related challenges.The following major points of discussion are addressed here: (1) whether Kant's argumentregarding a world republic in the theory of perpetual peace contradicts that regarding the philosophy of perpetual peace described in his other treatises, particularly "The Metaphysics of Morals"; (2) whether Kant was philosophically convinced of the feasibility of perpetual peace or whether such feasibility was an expression of religious hope; (3) the question of what guaranteesthe realization of perpetual peace: (a) God or providence, (b) the intention of nature(Naturabsicht) or natural mechanisms, or (c) moral practice by humans; (4) why in the theory of perpetual peace Kant proposed a league of nations as the negative surrogate of a world republic, and whether the argument is rational; (5) how the relationship between the theory of perpetual peace and issues of justice should be interpreted; and (6) whether the views expressed in the theory are still useful today. Lastly, the paper clarifies the significance of the theory of perpetual peace in the present context as follows: First, the theory is inseparable from today's theory of justice. Second, ideasabout the theory do not allow holy war — which destroys peace in the name of justice — from the perspective of global justice. Third, a theory of justice has been examined from a variety of perspectives, which has in turn made the subject a battlefield for discussions. In any case, studies and assessment of the theory of perpetual peace offer some important ideas for the peace andstability of the international community.