||近世日本における庶民の「蝦夷地」像 : 刊行図と節用集所載の地図を中心として
The Representation of Ezochi in Privately Printed Japanese Maps during the Edo Period
146 , 2016-03-30 , 法政大学文学部
Between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Hokkaido (the northernmost island of Japan) was divided politically into two areas: Wajinchi, the Japanese area, and Ezochi the area reserved for the indigenous Ainu. This paper examines how Ezochi was viewed by the common people of Japan, during the Edo period. In the context of Japanese historical cartography of Ezochi, many geographical researchers have discussed the development of the scholars of understanding Ezochi by Japanese political power (Tokugawa shogunate and Matsumae domain) between pre-modern and modern. However it is important to consider the difference between the scholars and common people when analyzing geographical knowledge of Japan's history.This paper demonstrates that Ezochi was misrepresented on the maps published by private mapmakers, and in encyclopedias published for the common people living Edo, Osaka, and Kyoto during the Edo period.In the nineteenth century, the Tokugawa shogunate provided the first accurate map ofEzochi, following the survey of the areas' coastline by Ino Tadataka. The shogunate did this because they wanted to include Ezochi in Japanese territory. Private mapmakers and publishers in Edo, Osaka, and Kyoto continued to publish various printed maps of Japan and Ezochi. The representation of Ezochi was not updated on most privately printed maps. Additionally, maps of Japan and Ezochi that were printed after the surveywas conducted continued to rely on incorrect information taken from old maps. In some encyclopedias, Ezochi was represented on a 'Fusokokuzu' (a type of Japanese map used in the seventeenth century), and these representations have had a major influences on the image of Ezochi held by the common people during the Edo period.