||19世紀ヨーロッパ市民社会における女性の性の排除構造 : 『カルメン』・Femme fatale・女性労働者階級
Exclusion-Structures of the Female Sexuality from the European Bourgeois Societies in the 19th Century : Carmen • Femme fatale • Women in the working classes
113 , 2016-03-30 , 法政大学文学部
In his work Die Romantische Schule (1836) Heinrich Heine criticized the German romanticschool because of its tendency to the anti-reason and anti-enlightenment which led the school to the mysticism and the irrationalism. This study investigated the discrepancy between the intention of the romantic school and the demand of the bourgeoisie, i.e., the substantial recipient of books. With the industrial development in the 19th century in Europe, the cultivated readers expected realistic description of the contemporary real-life, and consequently rejected the school's admiration for the medieval or the medievalism as in the case of Friedrich de la Motte Fouqeu's Undine.The social and political movement in western Central Europe in the mid-nineteenth-centuryis characterized by the Revolutions of 1848, while Heine focused on the protest of the Silesian weaver in his poem Die Schlesische Weber so as to show that women in the lower working classes suffered from poverty and socio-economic oppression. This paper also aimed to illustrate how the female or the female sexuality was oppressed both in her family and in a society where she belongs. Women in a bourgeois family were, for instance, normally deprived of their chance to write literary works, but the women in the lower working classes were far more remarkably oppressed. The present study gave an analysis of the structures of how women or the female sexuality in the lower working classes were regarded as "Outsider" or "The Marginal" of the community, and also showed that they were apt to be despised and discriminated because they went beyond the conventional social norm as having illegitimate children or prostituting. Particularly after they sought for their suffrage, they became a kind of menace to the bourgeois class. According to Hans Mayer, in the era from the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century, European society admitted an equality of gender and even the rights of "Outsider", but the bourgeoisie transformed the principles of the social hierarchy, because its principles were based on the economic unequality. As a result of the European overseas exploration and estab lishment of colonies, Europe had to face the problems of the different ethnic people. By focusing on the characteristic narrative structure and the form of "confession", this paper showed thatProsper Merimee's Carmen (1845) could be interpreted as an attempt to exclude the minor race (the Roma/Romani/Kale, Gypsy). Merimee also made a Kale-Carmen, who was traditionally interpreted as a so-called "Femme fatale", overlap with the women in the lower working classes through the manipulation of the readers and intended to eliminate them both from society. As the result of the research, the exclusion structure of the female sexuality in the bourgeois society could be traced.