The Antinomy of Independence in Kant’s “Theory and Practice”
45 , 2015-09-30 , 法政大学文学部
This paper intends to disclose the hidden antinomy of Kant's Philosophy in "Theory and Practice"（Fulltitle;"On the common saying : this may be true in theory but it does not apply in practice"）. I name this hidden antinomy 'Antinomy of Independence'. And I also intend to show the role and ambiguity of the concept of the Antinomy in Kant's Philosophy. At first, I analyze the concept of 'Independence' in "Theory and Practice". Kant regarded that a lawful state is based on three a priori principles. The freedom of every member of society as a humanbeing., thee quality of each with all the others as a subject, and the independence of each member of a common wealth as a citizen. As many interpreter have pointed out, it is extremely difficult to achieve acomprehensive understanding of the concept of 'Independence', because of its ambiguity. I showed how this ambiguity of the concept of 'Independence' brings 'Antinomy of Independence' in this paper. Second, I pointed out the duality of theconcept of 'Maturity（Muendigkeit）' play a causative role for this antinomy. As I discuss later, the concept of 'Maturity（Muendigkeit）' is one of core concept for the philosophy of enlightenment in 18th century. Kant inherits this concept in a unique but unclear way. That is why the antinomy of Independence arises. Finally, I showed Kant regarded 'the freedom of pen' as a key to resolve the 'Antinomy of Independence'. 'Antinomy of Independence' is turned into a political issue and try to resolve by 'the freedom of pen'. In conclusion, this paper showed a new aspect of Kant's philosophy which counter against modern age. On the one hand, Kant diagnosed his own age as 'a enlightenment age', under which the enlightenment and freedom of everyone. On the other hand, Kant held a critical viewpoint on such this 'a enlightenment age' because it contains a sort of exclusive mentality about 'Independence'.