Departmental Bulletin Paper 2013年フィジー共和国新憲法の特徴 : 憲法の変遷を中心として
Characteristics of the 2013 Constitution of the Republic of Fiji : Comparative Analyses with the Past and Draft Constitutions

野原, 稔和

3pp.163 - 173 , 2015-03-24 , 法政大学公共政策研究科
本稿の課題は,2013年8月に公表され,同年9月に公布されたフィジー共和国新憲法の権利章典及び議会制度を中心に,過去の憲法及び憲法草案と詳細に比較分析することにより,その特徴を明らかにすることである。2006年のクーデター後,イロイロ大統領が1997年憲法を廃止し,バイニマラマ首相が新憲法の起草を発表し,2013年9月6日,フィジー政府は新憲法を公布した。同憲法には2014年9月17日に総選挙を実施する旨が記載されており,周辺諸国,政党,NGO 等は権利章典及び議会制度の条項について懸念してきた。そのため,フィジー憲法において権利章典及び議会制度がどのような変遷を辿ってきたかを明らかにし,新憲法にどのような影響を与えたかを理解することが重要であると考え,1970年,90年,97年憲法,及び2012年及び13年新憲法草案と比較しながら,2013年新憲法の権利章典及び議会制度の比較分析を開始した。比較分析を通して,新憲法の権利章典は過去の憲法及び憲法草案に基づいており,同議会制度は過去の非民主的なシステムを除外することを目的としていることが明らかになった。特に,権利章典は権利の制限を緩和し,労働組合の政治活動を嫌う現政権の考えを反映し,先住民系フィジー人の土地所有問題及び小学生及び高校生への無料教育を重視している。議会制度は選挙制度を単純化し,当選のための5%の閾地を設定している。
The objective of this paper is to reveal characteristics of the bill of rights and the parlia-mentary systems of the 2013 Constitution of the Republic of Fiji through comparative analyses with those of the past and draft constitutions. After the 2006 coup, President Iloilo made an announcement to abolish the 1997 Constitution and asked Interim Prime Minister Bainimarama to create new one. The Bainimara-ma government requested Professor Yash Ghai, Kenyan academic in constitutional law, to draft a constitution in 2012, and Professor Ghai created one with his Constitution Commission members through Fiji-wide discussions. However, President Nailatikau rejected his draft, and Prime Minister Bainimarama ordered his legal advising team to create a revised version. The revised version was made in March 2013, and the Fijian nationals were asked to submit their opinions regarding the revised version. Reflecting the opinions, the 2013 Constitution was enacted on September 6, 2013. Under the 2013 Constitution, a general election was conducted on September 17, 2014. Some neighboring countries including Australia and New Zealand and institutions in Fiji including political parties and NGOs have worried if the election would be conducted with free and fair bases under the constitution. They have especially concerned articles for the bill of rights and the parliamentary systems. That is why this analysis was conducted for the bill of rights and the parliamentary systems of the 2013 Constitution comparing with those of the 1970, 1990 and 1997 constitutions and the 2012 and 2013 draft constitutions. Through the analyses, this paper found out that the bill of rights of the 2013 Constitution was created based on that of the past and draft constitutions, and its parliamentary systems aim at excluding non-democratic systems of the past. Especially, the bill of rights relaxes limitations of the rights, reflects that the Fijian government has disliked political activities of labor unions, and considers land security matters of indigenous Fijians and free elementary education. The parliamentary systems simplify its election systems and set up the 5% threshold to be elected as an independent candidate and political party.

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