Departmental Bulletin Paper 米国の気候変動政策過程の背後で働くロビイスト

ベッカー, マリー D.  ,  藤倉, 良  ,  中山, 幹康  ,  藤倉, まなみ

3pp.3 - 17 , 2015-03-24 , 法政大学公共政策研究科『公共政策志林』編集委員会
Lobbying is an attempt to persuade a lawmaker or official in the administration to support, oppose, or alter legislation and policies that will favor the interests of the group the lobbyist is representing. This paper discusses the role of lobbyists in the climate change debate in the United States and the strategies they use to influence the public and lawmakers. In 2014, there were 11,509 registered federal lobbyists in the U.S. who reported spending $2.41 billion on lobbying activities. There are many effective strategies for influencing lawmakers and government officials. Lobbyists do not rely on one strategy, but employ many different tactics concurrently. Most importantly, lobbying is based on building a relationship, maintaining trust, and never misleading the lawmaker or staff member. The strategies include targeting the lawmakers to persuade, obtaining access to lawmakers and staff, activating and mobilizing lawmakers’ constituents, supporting grassroots campaigns, focusing on a lawmaker’s interests and the local impacts, funding education and research organizations, educating the lawmaker, supporting media and education campaigns, building partnerships or stakeholder groups, and contributing to political campaigns. As the climate change issue has grown in prominence, the number of players who have a vested interest in the outcome of mitigation measures and who weigh in on climate policy has grown. During the climate policy debates in the early 2000’s, 70% of the lobbyists represented heavy industries that would be most affected by curbs on fossil fuels. By 2009, everyone was weighing in, from the alternative energy manufacturers, to the large banks and private equity firms, to public agencies and cities. Importantly, lesser polluting industries who feared that they would be disadvantaged by the credits and exemptions going to the heavier polluters already involved in the discussions rushed to get involved in the climate debates. The role of science in creating a case for climate change mitigation measures is obviously critical. One of the tactics of those groups who seek to block climate change mitigation measures is to attack the very existence of global warming and climate change. The climate change skeptics often “cherry pick,” or select only the data that support their view, while ignoring the other data in making their observations. Scientists are actively trying to rebut the misconceptions about climate science in the media and educating the public and elected leaders about the issue. Scientists employed by mainstream environmental groups perform studies and publish peer-reviewed papers in reputable scientific journals in addition to briefing policy makers on the science.

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