紀要論文 米国の気候変動政策過程の背後で働くロビイスト
The Role of Lobbyists in the Formulation and Adoption of Climate Change Mitigation Policy in the United States

ベッカー, マリー D.  ,  藤倉, 良  ,  中山, 幹康  ,  藤倉, まなみ

3pp.3 - 17 , 2015-03-24 , 法政大学公共政策研究科
ISSN:21875790
NII書誌ID(NCID):AA12714757
内容記述
米国では,2014年には連邦レベルで11,509人のロビイストが登録され,24億1千万ドルがロビー活動に支出された。気候変動を専門とするロビイストは2003年から2008年にかけて3倍に増加した。2000年代初頭には気候政策に関係するロビイストの70%が化石燃料の削減に強く影響を受ける業界を代表していたが,2009年までにはあらゆる部門が参入するようになっている。ロビイストの目的は代弁する団体の利益にかなうように議員や官僚を説得することである。最も重要なことは議員や議員スタッフと信頼関係を築くことであり,講じうる戦略は多数ある。まず,ターゲットとなる議員を絞りこみ,議員とスタッフへアクセスする。議員の支持者を動員し,議員に対してメールや電話などで働きかけをすることは有効な手段である。草の根運動やシンクタンク,さらには選挙運動に資金提供することもある。訴える内容は,気候変動が地球規模のものであっても,議員の支持地盤に関連したローカルな文脈に絞らなければならない。気候変動緩和策を阻止したいグループが気候変動の存在そのものを攻撃することもある。都合の良いデータだけを取り上げ,他のデータは無視して自分たちの主張を作り上げてキャンペーンを行う。その結果,科学者の大多数が気候変動の存在に合意しているにもかかわらず,市民は科学界でも意見が分かれていると信じ込んでしまう。これに対抗するため,科学者もメディアを使って気候科学についての誤った考えに反論する取組を行っている。
Lobbying is an attempt to persuade a lawmaker or official in the administration to support, oppose, or alter legislation and policies that will favor the interests of the group the lobbyist is representing. This paper discusses the role of lobbyists in the climate change debate in the United States and the strategies they use to influence the public and lawmakers. In 2014, there were 11,509 registered federal lobbyists in the U.S. who reported spending $2.41 billion on lobbying activities. There are many effective strategies for influencing lawmakers and government officials. Lobbyists do not rely on one strategy, but employ many different tactics concurrently. Most importantly, lobbying is based on building a relationship, maintaining trust, and never misleading the lawmaker or staff member. The strategies include targeting the lawmakers to persuade, obtaining access to lawmakers and staff, activating and mobilizing lawmakers’ constituents, supporting grassroots campaigns, focusing on a lawmaker’s interests and the local impacts, funding education and research organizations, educating the lawmaker, supporting media and education campaigns, building partnerships or stakeholder groups, and contributing to political campaigns. As the climate change issue has grown in prominence, the number of players who have a vested interest in the outcome of mitigation measures and who weigh in on climate policy has grown. During the climate policy debates in the early 2000’s, 70% of the lobbyists represented heavy industries that would be most affected by curbs on fossil fuels. By 2009, everyone was weighing in, from the alternative energy manufacturers, to the large banks and private equity firms, to public agencies and cities. Importantly, lesser polluting industries who feared that they would be disadvantaged by the credits and exemptions going to the heavier polluters already involved in the discussions rushed to get involved in the climate debates. The role of science in creating a case for climate change mitigation measures is obviously critical. One of the tactics of those groups who seek to block climate change mitigation measures is to attack the very existence of global warming and climate change. The climate change skeptics often “cherry pick,” or select only the data that support their view, while ignoring the other data in making their observations. Scientists are actively trying to rebut the misconceptions about climate science in the media and educating the public and elected leaders about the issue. Scientists employed by mainstream environmental groups perform studies and publish peer-reviewed papers in reputable scientific journals in addition to briefing policy makers on the science.
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http://repo.lib.hosei.ac.jp/bitstream/10114/11442/1/kss_3_becker_etal.pdf

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