||「戦争」の倫理と「平和」の技法 : ヘーゲル『法の哲学』における「国家」論によせて
Ethics of War and Pragmatism of Peace in Hegel’s Theory of the State in Philosophy of Right
58 , 2015-03-15 , 法政大学文学部
Hegel's theory of war in his Philosophy of Right has been criticized by various commentators as the attempt to normatively justify sacrifice for the political community to link the modern state with totalitarian ideas. What led them to have such impression is Hegel's famous statement that war is not absolute harm and rather has higher ethical significance, namely sustaining "ethical health of citizens". However this is so misleading explanation of war that it has to be read carefully in consideration of Hegel's theory of Ethical Life whole. According to Hegel, the ethical significance of war is the transcendence of material values, that individuals living in civil society could recognize relativity of their own particular self-interests and go back into the state as an ethical universality. Such self-negation is assigned to them as the object duty of sacrifice to become a part of the political institutions from the state, when the national crisis such as a disaster and an epidemic disease occurred. But it is not undesirable coercion by the political power for citizens, because they are supposed to be already self-educated to have feelings of patriotism, namely trust and obedience to the rational state wThose purpose is realizing happinessof all the people. Thus, war is different one of serious tests of holding such patriotism in common for citizens. And, when a war happens, the object duty of sacrifice is divided into the role of the officer or professional soldier, role of the political government and role of private citizens. Fromthis division the following ethical codes are derived. 1. The officer must not participate in politics. 2. The private citizens are not directly related to a battle. 3. The government must protect a civic life in the wartime. It is a condition for the state to be trusted by citizens as the rational state to follow these ethical codes. Then, Hegel reformulates these domestic norms as require ments to be recognized as the sovereign state by other states. From the viewpoint of such inter national relationship between rational states, each state must pursue possibility of the peace during the war, because the irrational state which is apt to violate those rules would lose the trust from citizens and the recognition from other states, and finally would be ruined in a World-History. Therefore, for Hegel, the peace must not be considered as an abstract moral ideal, but as pragmatic means to the existence of the rational state, although he did not deliberate upon this matter enough.