Departmental Bulletin Paper 養護学校義務化前の「精神薄弱」児施設における教育 : 1967-1978年の熊本県立肥後学園に焦点をあてて
ヨウゴ ガッコウ ギムカ マエ ノ セイシン ハクジャクジ シセツ ニ オケル キョウイク : 1967 1978ネン ノ クマモト ケンリツ ヒゴ ガクエン ニ ショウテン オ アテテ
Educational Treatment at Institutions for "Mentally Retarded" Children before Special Schools were made Compulsory : 1967-1978 Higo Gakuen, Kumamoto, Japan

古田, 弘子  ,  東矢, 直也  ,  フルタ, ヒロコ  ,  トウヤ, ナオヤ  ,  Furuta, Hiroko  ,  Toya, Naoya

33pp.57 - 65 , 2016-02-29 , 熊本大学教育学部附属教育実践総合センター
The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of educational treatment conducted at the institutions for “mentally retarded” (official name at that time) children, before special schools for children with disabilities (SCDs) were made compulsory in 1979 in Japan. Under the 1947 Child Welfare Act, institutions for “mentally retarded” children were expected to adopt educational functions for their children. Higo Gakuen, a Kumamoto prefectural institution for “mentally retarded” children, was selected for the analysis during the period when a prefectural school for “mentally retarded” children (SMRC) was set up inside Higo Gakuen in 1967 up to 1978, a year before SCDs were made fully compulsory. A special focus is given to the educational treatment of children with more severe disabilities who were out of formal education even after the opening of the prefectural SMRC. This study included analysis of documents and interviews with two staff at Higo Gakuen who had worked during that period. From the results, it revealed that there were two aspects of educational functions that characterized the educational treatment of children who were exempted and granted delay in school deferment. Firstly, the focus of educational treatment was mostly on development of the therapeutic education of children with severe and multiple disabilities, such as the life-skills learning, music and rhythm, and physical activities as well as functional training for independence. Secondly, cooperative works were done between the staff of Higo Gakuen and teachers in the SMRC for the purpose of developing instruction and teaching methods for severely “mentally retarded” children.

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