Departmental Bulletin Paper 学校教育を通して見たフィンランドの矯正教育(Ⅱ)<教育科学>

坂西, 友秀  ,  尾崎, 啓子  ,  吉川, はる奈  ,  細渕, 富夫

65 ( 2 )  , pp.13 - 33 , 2016 , 埼玉大学教育学部
In this paper, we report the every day lives of the studentes and the educational practices of the teachers in Vourrela School Home (corectional education facility) which located near the Helsinki . It is the purpose of this report to offer a Finish actual situation about correctional education in order to consider juvenile problems, correctional education, and school education in Japan. Finland does not have the Juvenile Act, and there is not the concept of “the fear criminal”, too. In Finland, on the law, an adult is defined as from the age of 20. Between Japan and Finland, there is a difference in the way of division of adolescence. It is the basic philosophy of correctional education that by education rather than punishment, the teachers encourage children to regain healthy lives of them. Students do the day-to-day activities at the facility in order to obtain a vivid and normal everyday lives. They take classes at school, work together, and live together in a dormitory, every day.The dormitory of home is completely equipped with a private room while being based on communal living. The school home respects human rights and independence of each student. It is common not only in a correction educational facility to make much of the human rights of the child and do small individual guidance, but also in an elementary school, in a junior high school, and in the high school in Finland. Furthermore, the respect for human rights is the base of education which is common to North European welfar state. There seem to be the fact that most children were housed in the facility because of their having committed delinquency. Although Finland is a country of the welfare, problem of the youth is an important social problem. Though there are juvenile problems, there is much less number of the people of confinement of Finland than that of Europe and America. Until the end of World War II , a confinement rate in Finland was approximately 4 times of the one in other Nordic countries, and there was not a difference in a confinement rate between Finland and European countries. After having joined the Nordic Council in 1956, the confinement rate of Finland (to a population of 100,000 the confinement number of people) decreased throughout.The confinement rate is not proportional to the number of the outbreak of the crime of the country simply. It is strongly related with a confinement rate of the country to guarantee democracy, economic equality, cultural equality and enough social welfare services. There is no difference between confinement rate in Japan and those in Scandinavian countries , but after the early 1990s, the confinement rate in Japan have continued to increase till today. When we think about correctional education in Japan, it is necessary that we pay more attention to factors about respect for human rights, reduction of the economic disparity, improvement of the social welfare and the expansion of the gender equality. Both of the correctional education and school education in Finland offer useful viewpoints to us.

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