||The continuing struggle to clean London’s air《論文》
225 , 2016-8 , 埼玉大学経済学会
Pollution from smoke has been a problem ever since people first started to make fires in order to cook food, to keep warm, and to work metals. The problem became far worse in London with its rapid growth and industrialisation during the nineteenth century, but little effective action was taken until the London fog of 5 to 8 December 1952 that resulted in the premature death of between 3,500 and 4,000 people. The Clean Air Act then led to a steady reduction in smoke and sulphur dioxide concentrations, aided by the replacement of coal by oil and then of oil by gas from the North Sea.The early regulations limiting air pollutant emissions from vehicles were effective, and were progressively strengthened. However, over the last decade it has become increasingly evident that many vehicles that meet the requirements of the regulations under test conditions, fail to do so on the road. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from diese engined passenger cars and light trucks are a particular problem, with little prospect of London meeting the NO2 requirements of the European Union Ambient Air Quality Directive for some years. The Mayor of London introduced a Low Emission Zone in 2008 and is now proposing to supplement this with an Ultra-Low Emission Zone from 2020 in the hope of achieving compliance with the Directive.