Departmental Bulletin Paper 学校教育を通して見たフィンランドの矯正教育(Ⅰ)<教育科学>

坂西, 友秀  ,  尾崎, 啓子  ,  吉川, はる奈  ,  細渕, 富夫

65 ( 1 )  , pp.49 - 67 , 2016 , 埼玉大学教育学部
In this paper, we report the every day life of the studentes and the educational practices of the teachers in Vourrela School Home (corectional education facility) which locaed near the Helsinki . A purpose of this report is to offer a Finish document about correctional education to examine juvenile problems, correction education, and school education in Japan. In Finland, they does not have the Juvenile Act, and there is not the concept of “the fear criminal”, too. The age of legal adulthood is 18 years old, and the young age division is different from Japan, A basic idea of the correction education is to let a child come back to the normal life through education of improvement, the rebirth of himself. Daily work of the home is to aim at making a normal life through taking a class (education) at school and the communal living in the dormitory in facilities. The dormitory of home is completely equipped with a private room while being based on cooperative living. The Schoool Home respects human rights and independence of each student. It is common not only in a correction educational facility to make much of the human rights of the child and small individual guidance, but also in an elementary school, in a junior high school, and in a high school. Furthermore, the respect for human rights is the base of education, which is common to North European welfar state. There seem to be fact that most children were treated to enter this facility by delinquency. Although Finland is a country of the welfare, the problem of youth is an important social problem. Though juvenile problems often occurs, there is much less number of the people of confinement of Finland than that of Europe and America. Until end of the World War II, a confinement rate of Finland was approximately 4 times of other Nordic countries, and there was no difference in confinement rate in Finland and in European countries. After having joined the Nordic Council in 1956, the confinement rate of Finland (to a population of 100,000 the confinement number of people) decreases throughout.The confinement rate is not proportional to the number of the outbreak of the crime of the country simply. It is strongly related with a confinement rate of the country to guarantee democracy, economic equality, cultural equality and enough social welfare services. The confinement rate of Japan is approximately equal to that of Nordic countries, but after the early 1990s, the confinement rate of Japan increase steadily. When I think about correction education of Japan, it is necessary to pay more attention to the factors concerning the respect for human rights, an economic difference, improvement of social welfare and the gender equality. Both correctional education and school education of Finland offer a useful viewpoint to us. For the general consideration, I examined correction education of youth from two viewpoints of social welfare and the comeback to normal life.

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