Departmental Bulletin Paper 歌枕「依羅」考 : 『歌枕名寄』を通して《論文》

村岡, 順午

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『歌枕名寄』巻十六に立項された「依羅杜(よさみのもり)」は藤原定家によってただ一度詠まれただけの歌枕である。「地名と観念の結合」や「よく詠まれる」こと等が条件となっている現在の通説では歌枕とは呼び難い「単なる地名」でしかない。そこでまず、主要な先行研究が歌に詠まれた地名のうち条件を満たしたものを歌枕と定義しているのに対して、特に中世においては歌学書に立項された地名も歌枕とすることができるのではないかという説を提示した。次に吉原栄徳によれば「依羅の森」に類似する歌枕に「依羅の池」「依羅の原」があるので、歌枕の定義に触れつつ、それらの歌枕との関連性を考察することで「依羅」が通説の条件を満たし得る歌枕であることを論じ、その過程で「依羅の池」の証歌を二詠、「依羅の原」の証歌を五詠挙げ、それぞれの詠史を整理した。そして「依羅の原」五例のうち寂身法師の詠んだ一詠だけ三河国の「よさみの原」を詠んだものであることにも言及した。Yosami no mori [Yosami forest] is an utamakura - a place name with as special poetical association in classical Japnese poetry. It was selected as an utamakura in volume sixteen of the utamakura collection Utamakura na yose [Gathering of poetical place names], though it appears only once in a poem written by FUJIWARA Teika. In a widely accepted view today, utamakura is defined as something that requires “a certain unity between the names of places and the ideas represented by those names,” and/or that is “used in poetry fairly often.” In such a view, Yosami can hardly be considered as an utamakura, but simply as a name of a place. Indeed, major preceding studies tend to regard only the names of famous places as utamakura, for they would meet the criteria described above. In this article, I argue that, we might well consider the names of the places selected in Kagaku sho, reference books on Japanese poetry, especially those published in the Middle Ages as utamakura too.According to YOSHIHARA Eitoku, there exist other utamakura similar to Yosami no mori, namely Yosami no ike [Yosami pond] and Yosami no hara [Yosami fields]. By examining the relationship between these three utamakura, I showed that Yosami could satisfy the foregoing criteria required for being regarded as an utamakura. In doing so, I examined two poems on Yosami no ike and five on Yosami no hara and analyzed their respective historical backgrounds. I also found that among the five poems on Yosami no hara, a poem composed by Buddhist monk Jyakushin, is the only poem that features Yosami no hara in Mikawa no kuni [County of Mikawa].
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