Departmental Bulletin Paper 故郷は屋久島,終の棲家は敬愛園 : ハンセン病療養所「星塚敬愛園」聞き取り《調査ノート》

福岡, 安則  ,  黒坂, 愛衣

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国立ハンセン病療養所「星塚敬愛園」に暮らす70 歳代男性のライフストーリー。岩川洋一郎さんは,1937年2月,鹿児島県は屋久島の生まれ。1948年5月23日,11歳のとき,父親に連れられて,鹿児島県鹿屋市にある星塚敬愛園に入所。第1 回聞き取りは2007年12月26日,星塚敬愛園自治会会長室にて実施。聞き取り時点で70歳。聞き手は,福岡安則,黒坂愛衣,下西名央。第2回聞き取りは2008 年8月17日,同じく敬愛園自治会会長室にて。聞き手の顔ぶれも同じ。現在,星塚敬愛園の入所者自治会の会長をつとめる岩川さんは“予防法があり,こういう施設=ハンセン病療養所があったればこそ,いま自分たちが生き長らえられている”という基本認識の持ち主と思われる。11歳で星塚敬愛園に入所したとき,彼は「さびしさ」を感じなかったという。父親の,屋久島の役場から鹿児島県庁への転勤に伴い,鹿児島市内の小学校に転校してきた彼には,友達がいなかった。しかし,ここ,敬愛園の少年舎には,同年代の同病者がいっぱいいて,一緒に野球なども楽しめて,おかげで孤独を感じずに成長できた。さらに,岩川さんはいまでは“誤診”と疑っているが,数年遅れでやはりハンセン病と診断されて敬愛園に入所してきた父親は,特効薬プロミンの治療を受けて「軽快退所」し,故郷の屋久島で,周囲のみなが彼のことをハンセン病療養所退所者と知りながらも,町会議員を3期12年つとめた。岩川さんには,身近なところに,ハンセン病に罹ったからといって卑屈になるにはおよばないと考えられるだけの,うってつけのロールモデルがあったのだ。「らい予防法」の規制力が多少とも形骸化していったなかでも,多くの療友がまだ“目に見えない鎖”で療養所に縛りつけられていた時期に,彼は車の免許を取得するために「軽快退所」をし,そのあと故郷の屋久島でトラックの運転手として働き,といったかたちで,豪放磊落に青年期を生き抜いている。ただ,彼の場合,根をつめて働きすぎると,ハンセン病の再発とはならないまでも,身体がこたえる状態になり,そのたびに,みずから敬愛園に戻っている。彼は,自分で「わたしはあらゆる仕事をした」と語るように,あるときには,療養所の療友たちとともに,静岡県の山奥の井川ダムの工事現場に出稼ぎに行き,労賃をまったくもらえないという体験をしたり,鹿屋市内の理解あるガソリンスタンド経営者のもとで20年間,敬愛園からの通いの勤めもしたりという,多くの社会経験を有する。そのようにしながらも,合間あいまに,屋久島の海でのトビウオ漁に参加したり,父親亡きあと,屋久島で3 年ばかり蜜柑づくりに精をだしたこともある。そして,年老いた母を見舞ったり,ハンセン病への偏見のゆえに離婚させられ「心の病い」を患うことになった妹のために,たびたび故郷・屋久島を訪れている。――その彼が,高齢化したいまとなっては自分も「社会復帰は無理」「敬愛園が終の棲家」と語る。彼にとって,ハンセン病療養所は,海が時化で荒れるときの避難港のような位置づけをもって所在してきたのだと考えられる。ただし同時に,岩川さんは「政府のハンセン病政策は,悪かったことは悪かったんだ」と語る。前述のように,鹿児島県庁に異動した父親が,人生これからというときに療養所に収容され,退職をよぎなくされた。妹が離婚させられ「心の病い」をえて,精神病院への入退院を繰り返す生涯をよぎなくされた。自分自身,園内で結婚した妻とのあいだに子どもができたが「堕胎」をよぎなくされた,等々。「隔離政策」ゆえの被害を,自身も身内の者たちもモロに受けている現実があるのだ。超高齢化とあいつぐ死去によりハンセン病療養所の入所者数が目に見えて減少していくなかで,「入所者自治会」の存続も危うくなりつつある現在,ひょっとすると星塚敬愛園最後の自治会長として,敬愛園の《これから》を案じ,苦闘しているのが,岩川さんの現在の姿なのかもしれない。This is the life story of a man in his 70s who is living in Hoshizuka-Keiaien, a national Hansen’s disease facility.Mr. Yoichiro Iwakawa was born in Yaku Island, Kagoshima Prefecture in 1937. He was brought to Hoshizuka-Keiaien at Kanoya City in Kagoshima Prefecture by his father on May 23, 1948.The first interview was practiced on December 26, 2007 at the head’s office of the Hoshizuka-Keiaien residents’ association. Mr. Iwakawa was 70 years old when the interview was practiced. Interviewers are Yasunori Fukuoka, Ai Kurosaka, and Nao Shimonishi. The follow-up interview was added on August 17, 2008 at the same place with same interviewers as the first one.Currently Mr. Iwakawa is serving as the head of the residents’ association of Hoshizuka-Keiaien. It seems he believes that Hansen’s disease facilities were helpful for the survival of Hansen’s disease patients. Mr. Iwakawa says that he did not feel any loneliness when he was sent to the facility at the age of eleven. He had to transfer the school when his father moved his work place from Yakushima Town Hall to Kagoshima Prefecture Office. He did not have any friends in the new school but met many young patients of his age in the facility to enjoy playing baseball. Thanks to this circumstance, he was able to grow up without loneliness. A few years later his father also entered Hoshizuka-Keiaien (Mr. Iwakawa considers that his father would have received a misdiagnosis) but was released later with the good condition after the Promin treatment. Although everyone in Yakushima knew about the father’s Hansen’s disease history, it did not disturb his father’s 12 years carrier and leadership as a town councilor. His father was a role model of Mr. Iwakawa. His father taught him that he did not need to feel inferior complex for Hansen’s disease.Although the effectiveness of the Segregation Policy was weakened, many Hansen’s disease ex-patients had to stay in the facility due to the so-called, ‘invisible bondage.’ However, Mr. Iwakawa left the facility to get his driver’s license. He enjoyed his youthful life at his hometown Yakushima as a truck driver. The only concern was the possibility of the recurrence of Hansen’s disease for working hard. He had voluntarily returned to Hoshizuka-Keiaien whenever his health condition became worse even if he did not have recurrence symptoms of Hansen’s disease. He said, “I have diverse work experiences.” He joined in construction work of Ikawa Dam in Shizuoka Prefecture with his colleagues but, sadly, did not earn any salary. He also commuted from Hoshizuka-Keiaien to a gas station run by the owner who understood Hansen’s disease well. Mr. Iwakawa occasionally returned to his hometown. He joined in fishing of flying fish on the sea of Yakushima. He also worked as a farmer to grow oranges for 3 years after his father died. He took care of his old mother and also helped his younger sister who divorced for the discrimination for the family members of Hansen’s disease. Despite of these experiences, Mr. Iwakawa who became old now says, ‘returning to society is difficult for me’ and ‘my final home is Hoshizuka-Keiaien.’ It seems that the facility was a sort of haven for him when he encountered rough waves of society.However, he also says that there were some problems with the Segregation Policy. His father was forced to resign from his work position when he entered the facility, and his sister suffered from mental illness after the divorce for the family history of Hansen’s disease. He got married to a woman whom he met in the facility but they were forced to have an abortion when his wife was pregnant. He was the one of the victims of the cruelness of the Segregation Policy.Currently the number of the residents in the Hansen’s disease facility is obviously decreasing due to the members’ death for age. It means that the fate of the residents’ association is not that bright. Mr. Iwakawa, as the head of the association, is struggling to find another future of Hoshizuka-Keiaien.
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