紀要論文 Burnout-related effects of emotional labor and work-related stressors among psychiatric nurses in Japan
Burnout-related effects of emotional labor and work-related stressors among psychiatric nurses in Japan
日本の精神科看護師の感情労働および職場ストレッサーがバーンアウトに与える影響

坂上, 章  ,  相上, 律子  ,  グェン, ティ トゥ フォン  ,  片山, 美穂  ,  長田, 恭子  ,  北岡, 和代

41 ( 1 )  , pp.97 - 111 , 2017-08-08 , Wellness and Health Care Society , ウェルネス・ヘルスケア学会
ISSN:2433-3190
NII書誌ID(NCID):AA1279215X
内容記述
This study was performed to examine the effects of emotional labor and work-related stressors along with the relation between emotional labor and burnout in psychiatric nurses in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire survey was sent to the director of nursing at a mental hospital, who then sent the surveys to all 169 nurses at the hospital. From among existing measures, we chose the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), to measure burnout; the emotional labor scale to measure emotional labor; and the Japanese version of the Areas of Worklife Survey (AWS) to measure work-related stressors. Multiple regression analysis was applied to the data, with three subscales (exhaustion , cynicism , and professional efficacy ) of the Japanese MBI-GS as dependent variables. The significant predictors of exhaustion were reward and workload (from the Japanese AWS) and display of negative emotions to patients (from the emotional labor scale). Significant predictors for cynicism were reward , workload , and values (Japanese AWS) and display of negative emotions to patients (the emotional labor scale). For professional efficacy, only marital status and reward (from the Japanese AWS) were found to have significant effects. The present study revealed some effects of emotional labor, particularly negative emotional labor. However, work-related stressors, notably reward, workload, and values, had greater effects on worker burnout. Some forms of emotional labor, such as empathy for patients and display of positive emotion , emotional dissonance, and emotional sensitivity requirements , were found to have no effect on worker burnout. In clinical practice, it is necessary to ensure that psychiatric nurses do not take on a disproportionate number of patients whose care would require negative emotional labor. It is also important that new nurses are trained by experienced nurses who demonstrate good awareness when engaging in negative emotional labor and know how to persuade patients. Furthermore, instead of simply assuming that emotional labor degrades mental health, we should actively pursue ways to allow professionals to exhibit empathy for patients and to handle emotional dissonance and sensitivity as needed. To prevent burnout among psychiatric nurses, organizations need to evaluate the nursesʼ performance, prevent individual nurses from becoming overworked, and reflect the nursesʼ sense of value in work. In this way, we can prevent burnout among psychiatric nurses and thereby provide better quality care to the patients.
日本の精神科看護師を対象として、感情労働と職場ストレッサーの双方がバーンアウトにおよぼす影響を検討し、精神科看護師の感情労働とバーンアウトとの関係を明らかにすることを目的とした。1 単科精神科病院に勤務する看護師 169 名を対象に自己記入式質問紙調査を実施した。バーンアウトは日本版MBI-GS (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey)を、感情労働は感情労働尺度を、職場ストレッサーは日本版 AWS (Areas of Worklife Survey)を採用し、測定した。 日本版 MBI-GS の 3 下位尺度を被説明変数とした重回帰分析を行った結果、‘ 疲弊感 ’ では日本版 AWS の ‘ 報酬 ’ と ‘ 仕事の負担 ’、感情労働尺度の ‘ 患者へのネガティブな感情表出 ’ が有意な説明変数となった。‘シニシズム’では日本版AWS の ‘ 報酬 ’、‘仕事の負担’、‘ 価値観 ’、感情労働尺度の ‘ 患者へのネガティブな感情表出 ’ が有意な説明変数となった。‘ 職務効力感 ’ では ‘ 婚姻状況 ’ と日本版 AWS の ‘ 報酬 ’ のみが有意な説明変数となった。 感情労働の中でも、ネガティブな感情労働のバーンアウトへの影響を認めることができたが、職場ストレッサーがおよぼす影響の方がより大きいと考えられた。精神科看護師のバーンアウトを予防してより質の高い看護を提示していくためには、組織全体で看護師の仕事の成果等を正しく評価すること、看護師個々に仕事の負担がかかりすぎないように配慮すること、看護師の価値観を仕事に反映させることを重要視し、取組んでいく必要がある。
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