紀要論文 Relationship between prediction-based motor control during loading task and motor learning during lever-pressing task
Relationship between prediction-based motor control during loading task and motor learning during lever-pressing task
重り負荷課題の予測に基づく運動制御とレバー押し課題の運動学習の関係

太田, 哲生  ,  米田, 貢  ,  菊池, ゆひ  ,  少作, 隆子

41 ( 1 )  , pp.37 - 48 , 2017-08-08 , Wellness and Health Care Society , ウェルネス・ヘルスケア学会
ISSN:2433-3190
NII書誌ID(NCID):AA1279215X
内容記述
Motor performance depends on feedback and feedforward motor control systems, and can be improved through learning processes. According to the “feedback error learning” model, the feedback of error signals improves “internal models” and refines the feedforward motor control. Thus, feedforward motor control plays a key role in improving motor performance. Feedforward motor control has been evaluated by measuring predictive components of movement in several tasks, including ball-catching, grasping, and weight-loading tasks. In the loading task, hand movement just before the start of loading (anticipatory response) is observed only when the timing of loading is predictable. Thus, this anticipatory response is assumed to reflect prediction-based feedforward motor control. On the other hand, a multi-lever-pressing task has been used to evaluate motor performance and its improvement by analyzing accelerometer signals. Correlation coefficients of accelerometer signals have been reported to increase with the number of trials, indicating that this measure can be used as an index of motor learning. In the present study, we examined the relationship between feedforward motor control and motor learning in 18 healthy volunteers using anticipatory responses in a loading task and correlation coefficients of accelerometer signals in a three-lever-pressing task. For the loading task, we used the Space Interface Device for Artificial Reality (SPIDAR). The subject was asked to hold the ball-shaped grip of SPIDAR. When the subject pressed the start button, a force of 4.9 N was applied to the grip. The subject was instructed to maintain the initial position during loading. The loading task was repeated 10 times, and the amplitude of upward deflection (anticipatory response) just before the start of loading was measured. In the three-lever-pressing task, the subject was instructed to press three levers as rapidly as possible using the left hand (hand), the left hand loaded with a weight (weight), and a stick attached to the left hand (stick). The three-lever-pressing task was repeated 11 times in sequence under each condition (hand, weight, stick). The hand movement was monitored using an accelerometer attached to the dorsal surface of the left hand. We found that correlation coefficients of accelerometer signals were lower in the stick condition than in the other two conditions, indicating that the stick variation of the task requires more learning. We also found that the amplitude of anticipatory response was correlated with the correlation coefficients of accelerometer signals only in case of the stick variation. These results provide evidence for a relationship between prediction-based feedforward motor control and motor learning.
運動をなめらかに行うためには、フィードバックおよびフィードフォワードの運動制御が必要である。運動学習と運動制御の仕組みを説明する現在の仮説は、誤差情報をフィードバックすることにより内部モデルを修正し、フィードフォワード制御の精度を上げる、というものであり、運動の上達においてフィードフォワード制御は重要な要素と考えられている。 フィードフォワード制御を評価する課題の1つとして、重りの負荷課題がある。予測が可能な条件で見られる、負荷の直前の手の動き(先行反応)は、予測に基づくフィードフォワード制御を反映するものと考えられている。一方、マルチレバー押し課題は、レバーを押す上肢の動きを加速度計で計測することで、上肢の運動制御を客観的に評価できる課題である。また、レバー押しを繰り返した時の加速度波形の類似性(波形間の相関係数)は、動作の習熟に伴い高くなることが報告されており、動作の習熟度を評価する指標として用いることができる。本研究では、健常者 18 名を対象とし、重りの負荷課題と3レバー押し課題の手の動きを解析し、フィードフォワード制御と運動の習熟との関係を調べた。左手で直接レバーを押す場合は、先行反応の大きさと加速度波形の類似性との間には相関はみられなかったが、左手に取り付けた棒でレバーを押す課題では、左右軸の動きに関して中程度の正の相関がみられた。以上の結果は、フィードフォワード制御と不慣れな運動の習熟との間に関係がある可能性を示唆している。
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