Journal Article Sardine procalcitonin amino-terminal cleavage peptide has a different action from calcitonin and promotes osteoblastic activity in the scales of goldfish

Kase, Yoichi  ,  Ikari, Takahiro  ,  Sekiguchi, Toshio  ,  Sato, Masayuki  ,  Ogiso, Shouzo  ,  Kawada, Tsuyoshi  ,  Matsubara, Shin  ,  Satake, Honoo  ,  Sasayama, Yuichi  ,  Endo, Masato  ,  Kitamura, Kei-ichiro  ,  Hattori, Atsuhiko  ,  Watanabe, Takushi X.  ,  Maruyama, Yusuke  ,  Watanabe, Yoshinari  ,  Funahashi, Hisayuki  ,  Kambegawa, Akira  ,  Suzuki, Nobuo

The nucleotide sequence of a sardine preprocalcitonin precursor has been determined from their ultimobranchial glands in the present study. From our analysis of this sequence, we found that sardine procalcitonin was composed of procalcitonin amino-terminal cleavage peptide (N-proCT) (53 amino acids), CT (32 amino acids), and procalcitonin carboxyl-terminal cleavage peptide (C-proCT) (18 amino acids). As compared with C-proCT, N-proCT has been highly conserved among teleosts, reptiles, and birds, which suggests that N-proCT has some bioactivities. Therefore, both sardine N-proCT and sardine CT were synthesized, and their bioactivities for osteoblasts and osteoclasts were examined using our assay system with goldfish scales that consisted of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. As a result, sardine N-proCT (10− 7 M) activated osteoblastic marker enzyme activity, while sardine CT did not change. On the other hand, sardine CT (10− 9 to 10− 7 M) suppressed osteoclastic marker enzyme activity, although sardine N-proCT did not influence enzyme activity. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers such as type 1 collagen and osteocalcin were also promoted by sardine N-proCT (10− 7 M) treatment; however, sardine CT did not influence their expressions. The osteoblastic effects of N-proCT lack agreement. In the present study, we can evaluate exactly the action for osteoblasts because our scale assay system is very sensitive and it is a co-culture system for osteoblasts and osteoclasts with calcified bone matrix. Both CT and N-proCT seem to influence osteoblasts and osteoclasts and promote bone formation by different actions in teleosts. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.
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