Journal Article Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer: Effects on cancer tissue and novel perspectives

Tajima, Hidehiro  ,  Makino, Isamu  ,  Ohbatake, Yoshinao  ,  Nakanuma, Shinichi  ,  Hayashi, Hironori  ,  Nakagawara, Hisatoshi  ,  Miyashita, Tomoharu  ,  Takamura, Hiroyuki  ,  Ohta, Tetsuo

13 ( 6 )  , pp.3975 - 3981 , 2017-06-01 , Spandidos Publications
Chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer has diversified following the addition of more treatment regimens; however, in spite of this, pancreatic cancer remains a fatal disease. Preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy (NAC) or neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NACRT) has been developed and implemented. For patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) and locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), a number of clinical trials have been conducted; NACRT was demonstrated to improve resectability, R0 resection rate, overall survival rate, disease-free survival rate and even an LAPC and BRPC survival advantage over NAC. However, from the knowledge obtained from resected specimens following preoperative treatment, residual pancreatic cancer tissues following NAC are rich in chemoresistant cancer stem-like cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Conversely, metformin, angiotensin receptor blocker, statins and low-dose paclitaxel are well-known as drugs that inhibit EMT, which is associated with cancer stem cell-like characteristics. Although clinical effectiveness is unlikely to be achieved using one of these as an anticancer agent, it is reasonable to use these drugs for patients with comorbidities in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, gemcitabine (GEM) affects antitumor immunity by stimulating the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A on the surface of cancer cells to enhance the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells. Considering EMT and antitumor immunity, there is a possibility that GEM and nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel therapy is the most suitable regimen for treating pancreatic cancer. However, even as preoperative treatment progresses, R0 resection is the most important factor for the long-term survival of pancreatic cancer patients. © 2017, Spandidos Publications. All rights reserved.
Embargo Period 6 months

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