Journal Article General form of entropy on the horizon of the universe in entropic cosmology

Komatsu, Nobuyoshi  ,  Kimura, Shigeo

93 ( 4 )  , p.043530 , 2016-02-17 , American Physical Society
Entropic cosmology assumes several forms of entropy on the horizon of the universe, where the entropy can be considered to behave as if it were related to the exchange (the transfer) of energy. To discuss this exchangeability, the consistency of the two continuity equations obtained from two different methods is examined, focusing on a homogeneous, isotropic, spatially flat, and matter-dominated universe. The first continuity equation is derived from the first law of thermodynamics, whereas the second equation is from the Friedmann and acceleration equations. To study the influence of forms of entropy on the consistency, a phenomenological entropic-force model is examined, using a general form of entropy proportional to the nth power of the Hubble horizon. In this formulation, the Bekenstein entropy (an area entropy), the Tsallis-Cirto black-hole entropy (a volume entropy), and a quartic entropy are represented by n=2, 3, and 4, respectively. The two continuity equations for the present model are found to be consistent with each other, especially when n=2, i.e., the Bekenstein entropy. The exchange of energy between the bulk (the universe) and the boundary (the horizon of the universe) should be a viable scenario consistent with the holographic principle. © 2016 American Physical Society.

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