Journal Article Somato-axodendritic release of oxytocin into the brain due to calcium amplification is essential for social memory

Higashida, Haruhiro

66 ( 4 )  , pp.275 - 282 , 2016-07-01 , 日本生理学会 / Springer-Verlag Tokyo
Oxytocin (OT) is released into the brain from the cell soma, axons, and dendrites of neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus. Locally released OT can activate OT receptors, form inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and elevate intracellular free calcium (Ca2+) concentrations [(Ca2+)i] in self and neighboring neurons in the hypothalamus, resulting in further OT release: i.e., autocrine or paracrine systems of OT-induced OT release. CD38-dependent cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is also involved in this autoregulation by elevating [Ca2+]i via Ca2+ mobilization through ryanodine receptors on intracellular Ca2+ pools that are sensitive to both Ca2+ and cADPR. In addition, it has recently been reported that heat stimulation and hyperthermia enhance [Ca2+]i increases by Ca2+ influx, probably through TRPM2 cation channels, suggesting that cADPR and TRPM2 molecules act as Ca2+ signal amplifiers. Thus, OT release is not simply due to depolarization–secretion coupling. Both of these molecules play critical roles not only during labor and milk ejection in reproductive females, but also during social behavior in daily life in both genders. This was clearly demonstrated in CD38 knockout mice in that social behavior was impaired by reduction of [Ca2+]i elevation and subsequent OT secretion. Evidence for the associations of CD38 with social behavior and psychiatric disorder is discussed, especially in subjects with autism spectrum disorder. © 2015 The Author(s)
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